Gender Biases and Discrimination while Hiring
In the employment market, hiring processes in the organisations are often considered to perpetuate gender equality. The discrimination prevails through implicit and in-group biases. During hiring decisions, marked gender differences in the hiring standards continue to exist for women and men. Counter balancing attempts, such as demonstrating agentic behaviour seem to have been unfavourable in receiving appreciations. Factors like „accumulation of advantage‟, „physical attractiveness‟ and so forth adds to the „threat‟ for the woman candidate. The article proposes that sustained and concrete processes need to be ensured that would defuse gender stereotyping, the latter being an outcome of the human tendency to carve the world into in-group and out-group. Two methods to neutralise gender biases while hiring are recommended in the concluding section.
Bartol, K. M., & Wortman Jr, M. (1975). Male versus female leaders: Effects on perceived leader behavior and satisfaction in a hospital. Personnel Psychology, 28(4), 533-547. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01391.x
Biernat, M., & Kobrynowics, D. (1997). Gender and Race-based standards of competence: lower minimum standards by Higher ability standards for devalued groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(3), 544-557.
Bowen, C.-C., Swim, J. K., & Jacobs, R. R. (2000). Evaluating gender biases on actual job performance of real people: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30(10), 2194-2215. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2000.tb02432.x
Brewer, M. B. (1979). In-group bias in the minimal intergroup situation: a cognitive-motivational analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), 307-324.
Cann, A., Siegfried, W. D., & Pearce, L. (1981). Forced attention to specific applicant qualifications: impact on physical attractiveness and sex of applicant biases. Personnel Psychology, 34(1), 65-75. doi:10.1111/ j.1744-6570.1981.tb02178.x
Eagly, A. H., Makhijani, M. G., & Klonsky, B. G. (1992). Gender and the evaluation of leaders: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111(1), 3-22.
Erber, R., & Fiske, S. T. (1984). Outcome dependency and attention to inconsistent information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(4), 709-726.
Foschi, M. (2000). Double Standards for competence: theory and research. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 21-42. doi:10.1146/ annurev.soc.26.1.21
Glick, P., Wilk, K., & Perreault, M. (1995). Images of occupation: components of gender and status in occupational stereotypes. Sex Roles, 32(9/10), 565-582.
Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1464-1480.
Koomen, W., & Dijker, A. J. (1997). Ingroup and outgroup stereotypes and selective processing. European Journal of Social Psychology, 27, 589-601.
Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: II. method variables and construct validity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(2), 166-180. doi:10.1177/0146167204271418
Payne, J. W., Bettman, J. R., & Johnson, E. J. (1993). The adaptive decision maker. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Petersen, T., & Togstad, T. (2004). Getting the Offer: sex discrimination in hiring. IRLE Working Paper(No. 104-04). Retrieved from http://irle.berkeley.edu/files/2004/Getting-the-Offer.pdf
Reskin, B. F., & Bielby, D. D. (2005). A sociological perspective on gender and career outcomes. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(1), 71-86.
Rose, G. L., & Andiappan, P. (1978). Sex effects on managerial hiring decisions. Academy of Management Journal, 21(1), 104-112.
Rosen, B., & Jerdee, T. H. (1974). Influence of sex-role stereotypes on personnel decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(1), 9-14.
Steinpreis, R. E., Anders, K. A., & Ritzke, D. (1999). The impact of gender on the review of the curricula vitae of job applicants: a national empirical study. Sex Roles, 41(7/8), 509-528.
Terborg, J. R., & Ilgen, D. R. (1975). A theoretical approach to sex discrimination in traditionally masculine occupations. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 13, 352-376.
Trinh, S. L. (2015). Enjoy your sexuality, but do it in secret: exploring undergraduate women's reports of friends' sexual communications. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40(1), 96-107. doi:10.1177/ 0361684315596914
Wiley, M. G., & Eskilson, A. (1985). Speech style, gender stereotypes, and corporate success: What if women talk more like men? Sex Roles, 12(9-10), 993-1007. doi:10.1007/BF00288100
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.