Digital World: Threats to Security and the Scope for South-South Cooperation


  • Cherian Samuel Manohar Parikkar Institute for Defense Studies and Analyses, New Delhi, India



Digital threats, Cybersecurity, UNGGE, Paris Call, South- south co-operation, Malware


Technological advances have had a tremendous impact on the development of economy and society in the twenty-first century albeit with several security threats as well which are yet to be regulated. Many factors contribute to digital threats, making countries vulnerable and insecure, ranging from a large number of users, the intrinsic lack of security architecture, and the global nature of cyberspace. Whilst much of the focus is on confidence-building to facilitate international co- operation to facilitate rules-of-the-road, capacity building is equally important, though not receiving adequate attention because of the focus on great power politics. For developing countries, there is a need to ramp up capacities to deal with cyber threats. There is much scope for South-South cooperation in this regard since many developing countries, including India, possess advanced digital capabilities.


Braw, Elisabeth, and Gary Brown. 2020. “Personalised Deterrence of Cyber Aggression.” RUSI Journal 165 (2): 48–54.

Chappell, Bill (2017, 27 June). “'Petya' Ransomware Hits At Least 65 Countries; Microsoft Traces It to Tax Software.” NPR, National Public Radio, 06/28/534679950/ petya-ransomware-hits-at-least-65-countries-microsoft-traces-it-to-tax- software.

CIO East Africa (2017, 18 May) “ICT CS Joe Mucheru Calls for Information Sharing and Reporting on Cyber-Security Breaches.”, news/ict-cs-joe-mucheru-calls-for-information-sharing-and-reporting- on-cyber-security-breaches-2/

Department of Homeland Security (n.d.), National Initiative for Cybersecurity Careers and Studies, “Explore Terms: A Glossary of Common Cybersecurity Terminology” ND.

Global Forum on Cyber Expertise, (2017, March 16), Cyber Crime and Cybersecurity Trends in Africa Report.”, p. 20 documents/publications/2017/03/10/report-cyber-trends-in-africa.

ITU (n.d.), Definition of Cybersecurity,

Livemint, (2016, July 8) “Aadhaar Goes Global, Finds Takers in Russia and Africa.”, UEQ9o8Eo8RiaAa NN My L b EK/Aadhaar-goes-global-finds-takers-in-Russia-and-Africa.html.

Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (n.d-a), Active MoUs”, Government of India, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (n.d-b), “International co-operation, Countrywise status| Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India.”, Government of India,

Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (n.d-c), “International ICT Projects, Government of India, content/ international-ict-projects

Ministry of External Affairs (2017) “Civilian Training Programme, Indian Technical &

Economic Cooperation (ITEC) 2016-2017.” The Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Programme (ITEC),

Ministry of External Affairs (n.d.), ITEC Program. Available online at

Minter, Adam. (2018, October 7) How India Could Transform Africa, Bloomberg, aadhaar-could-unlock-economic-growth-in-africa.

Mueller, Milton. Internet Governance Project “Threat Analysis of the WCIT Part 4: The ITU and Cybersecurity.”, 20 Nov. 2017, wcit-4-cybersecurity/.

Nye, Joseph S (2014, November). The Regime Complex for Managing Global Cyber Activities. Paper, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, November 2014.

Saul, Jonathan (2017, June 29). “Global Shipping Feels Fallout from Maersk Cyber Attack.” Reuters, Thomson, article/ us-cyber-attack-maersk/global-shipping-feels-fallout-from-maersk- cyber-attack-idUSKBN19K2LE.

Signé, Landry, and Kevin Signé (2018, June 4). “Global Cybercrimes and Weak Cybersecurity Threaten Businesses in Africa.” Brookings, Brookings, /05/30/ global-cybercrimes-and-weak-cybersecurity-threaten-businesses-in- africa.

The Economic Times (2015, November 30), “Benefits for Africa as India Expands ITEC Programme.”, news/economy/foreign-trade/benefits-for-africa-as-india-expands- itec-programme/articleshow/49982822.cms

The Spamhaus Project (n.d.), The Top 10 Worst Botnet Countries.”,

United Nations (2010, July 30), "Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security."

United Nations (2005, August 5), Report of the Secretary General, Submitted by the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security

United Nations (2018a, 22 December), Advancing Responsible State Behaviour in Cyberspace in the Context of International Security. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly on 22 December 2018,

United Nations (2018b, 22 December), Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly on 22 December 2018,