Review of leisure activity participation constriant models
There have been constraint studies in the academic areas of leisure, recreation and travel; and the hierarchical model of leisure constraints (Crawford et al 1991) has been tested frequently. However, the issues of invalidity of this model in hierarchical flow of constraints and in universal application have been raised. Therefore, the three-factor model of leisure activity participation and the pyramid model of leisure activity participation constraints were developed to supplement the almost 20-yera old model. Through the classroom survey at Universities in the Republic of Korea, it turns out that 1) the structural, interpersonal and interpersonal constraints play a constraint role in leisure activity participation separately or together, and 2) structural constraints are most seriously followed by interpersonal and them interpersonal constraints.