Mapana Journal of Sciences <p><strong>Mapana Journal of Sciences (MJS)</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mapana Journal of Sciences (MJS) publishes high-quality original articles that make a significant contribution to the research areas of both theoretical and applied science.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Mapana Journal of Sciences</strong> is included in the <a href=";DiscpName=Arts%20and%20Humanities">UGC-CARE List </a>. (<strong>Group I, Sr.No. 330, Sciences</strong>)</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This journal is an efficient enterprise where the editors play a central role in soliciting the best research papers, and where editorial decisions are reached in a timely fashion. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of the journal is coverage of different aspects of Science. We publish original research, review article and research communications from all areas of the Natural and Mathematical sciences. The journal publishes articles, which are focused on existing and new methods, techniques and approaches in the field of Science. MJS publishes contemporary and innovative research, including theoretical, conceptual and empirical research papers. Primarily it has four themes (namely Physical Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Mathematical and Computational Sciences and Biological Sciences) with many sub themes. Each issue has a theme, though fundamental research contributions in the said domain remain welcome.</span></p> <p><strong>The journal does not charge any article processing or article submission charges from the authors.</strong></p> Centre for Publications, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore en-US Mapana Journal of Sciences 0975-3303 Distributed Denial of Services attacks on cloud servers: Detection, Analysis and Mitigation <p><strong><em>Today, most of the IT companies are moving towards Cloud infrastructure and technology due to its flexibility, scalability, and cost-effective features. But security is still the main hinderance to accept cloud computing on large scale. There are many security issues related to cloud implementation and one of the major threats is Distributed Denial of Services (DDoS) attack on cloud servers and applications. DDoS attack is a most prevailing security issue where attacker’s intention is to make all victim’s resources like cloud servers, storage, bandwidth etc. unavailable to general user which results to dissatisfactory outcomes in related business. This paper emphasis on understanding of DDoS attacks, their detection and analysis. The paper also explores the possible mitigation strategies to reduce the impact of DDoS.</em></strong></p> sudesh pahal Anjana Saroha Copyright (c) 2022 sudesh pahal, Anjana Saroha 2023-01-19 2023-01-19 22 1 10.12723/mjs.64.7 Editorial Manoj Balachandran Copyright (c) 2023 Manoj Balachandran 2023-04-17 2023-04-17 22 1 10.12723/mjs.64.0 Fixed Point Theorem for Fuzzy B-type Contractions in Fuzzy Metric Spaces <p>Recently, in 2021, Bijender et al. proposed the establishment of &nbsp;-contraction. Such sort of contraction is a genuine generalization of the standard contraction in the study of metric fixed point theory. The aim of the present study is the establishment of the novel concept of the fuzzy B-type contraction in the settings of fuzzy metric space and such contractions are also used to establish a few fixed point theorems.</p> Vizender Singh Bijender Singh Anil Ahlawat Copyright (c) 2022 Vizender Singh, Bijender Singh, Anil Ahlawat 2022-10-01 2022-10-01 22 1 10.12723/mjs.64.1 The Study of S - Curvature on a Homogeneous Finsler Space with Randers-Matsumoto Metric <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In this article, we have focused on the study of </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">S</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-curvature of Randers-Matsumoto metric on a homogeneous Finsler space. We have deduced the condition for an isometry of Finsler homogeneous space with Randers-Matsumoto metric to be an isometry of Riemannian homogeneous space and proved that the group of isometries of Finsler space are closed subgroups of that of Riemannian space. We have examined the existence of invariant vector field. Further, we have derived the formula for </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">S</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-curvature on the reductive homogeneous space, discussed the condition for isotropic </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">S</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-curvature and derived the </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">E</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-curvature of the Randers-Matsumoto metric for the homogenous space by using </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">S</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-curvature formula.</span></p> Narasimhamurthy Surekha Desai Raghavendra Copyright (c) 2022 Narasimhamurthy, Surekha Desai, Raghavendra 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 22 1 Topologies Induced by Vertex Set of Graphs <p>In this paper, subbasis for different topologies on vertex set of&nbsp; a &nbsp;simple graph without isolated vertices is introduced. Some properties of these topologies are investigated. Interior, closure, exterior and boundary of a vertex induced subgraph were defined and some basic properties were studied.</p> Gnanachandra Paulraj Lalithambigai K Copyright (c) 2023 Gnanachandra Paulraj, lalitha 2023-01-19 2023-01-19 22 1 10.12723/mjs.64.3 The bubbling Milky Way: An overview of infrared bubbles in our galaxy <p>Infrared bubbles are cavity-like structures formed around OB-type star(s) or star clusters. They are detected primarily at mid-infrared wavelengths. They usually enclose ionized gas and hot dust, composed of very small grains. A combination of thermal pressure of the expanding HIIregion, powerful stellar winds, and radiation pressure associated with massive stars contribute to the formation of a bubble. Expanding bubbles could trigger star formation, either via the collect and collapse process or radiatively driven implosion. This can further provide a pathway for understanding the aspects related to triggered star formation. This article provides a brief overview on infrared bubbles, their association with the HIIregion,the massive and young stellar objects they enclose, and the mechanisms of triggered star formation when they expand to the interstellar medium. As a representative example, we present a multiwavelength investigation of the northern infrared bubble CN71. The physical environment of the bubble CN71 is investigated using <em>Spitzer</em> data. We have detected 29 Class I/II YSOs and 459 Class III YSOs by NIR-MIR photometric analysis. We have also detected the presence of 5 OB-type stars within the bubble boundary. Using the Gaia EDR3, we estimated the distance to the bubble to be 1.6 kpc. Our preliminary analysis suggests that CN71 shows the signature of triggered star formation.</p> ANJALI K A Arun Roy Blesson Mathew Sreeja S. Kartha Copyright (c) 2023 ANJALI K A, Arun Roy, Blesson Mathew, Sreeja S. Kartha 2023-03-08 2023-03-08 22 1 10.12723/mjs.64.4 SURVEY ON FEATURE SELECTION FOR DATA MINING AND ITS APPLICATION IN OPINION MINING <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Sentiment Analysis (SA) and opinion mining is used for the systems of business intelligence in analyzing public opinion towards various brands and implementing market strategies. Machine learning aims at developing the algorithm in such a way that the performance of a system is optimized with past data or experience. In the case of SA, the feature selection method is used for the identification of different goals such as reduction of cost of computation, avoidance of over-fitting, and enhancing the accuracy of classification of the model. The methods of feature selection can reduce their original feature sets by the removal of irrelevant features for the classification of text sentiment and their accuracy. The paper surveys various feature selection techniques available in the literature. The study shows that feature selection significantly improves the classification of the sentiments, but it depends on the technique adopted and the number of features selected. </span></p> Dr. Sumanth S SIDDARAMA S Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Sumanth S 2023-01-14 2023-01-14 22 1 10.12723/mjs.64.5 A Study of Stock Market Prediction through Sentiment Analysis <p>In the modern world, the current state and course of economic development and growth are determined by the fortunes and vagaries of the stock markets. In this research study, the authors provide a model that can aid in making reliable and error-free predictions of stock market trends. The described approach uses sentiment analytics based on financial news and past stock market patterns. The proposed structure has been used to forecast stock market patterns that incorporates sentiment analysis taken from news and previous stock market patterns to provide more precise results. The model shown here has provided a two-step process- the Naive Bayes algorithm and forecasting future values of stocks using evaluation findings on text polarity and historical stock value movement information. A novel idea known as the KNN-LR Hybrid algorithm has been introduced to achieve better outcomes when evaluating the accuracy and efficacy of other machine learning algorithms.</p> SANDIPAN BISWAS SHIVNATH GHOSH SANDIP ROY RAJESH BOSE SANJAY SONI Copyright (c) 2023 SANDIPAN BISWAS, SHIVNATH GHOSH, SANDIP ROY, RAJESH BOSE, SANJAY SONI 2023-02-18 2023-02-18 22 1 10.12723/mjs.64.6 CT-DNA interaction, Fluorescence binding and Microbial activity of Schiff base metal complexes derived from 4-bromobenzaldehyde and 2-amino-6-methylbenzothiazole <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Bidentate ligand (L) was synthesized by knoevenagel reaction using 4-bromobenzaldehyde and 2-amino-6-methylbenzothiazole. The ligand has been confirmed from the analytical technique such as UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, Mass and EPR spectral. The synthesized metal complexes were characterized from the spectra and physico-chemical techniques. These studies showed that the stoichiometric composition of ML</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">2 </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">type complexes. Absorption study implies that the compounds posses the octahedral geometry and their chelates are electrolytic and monomeric in nature. Absorption and gel electrophoreses experiments set up accepted the effective interaction with CT-DNA molecules. It was extended to Fluorescence emission study of binding. The anti bacterial and anti fungi studies were carried out by disc diffusion method. From the MIC values, metal complexes were controlling larger than Schiff base.</span></p> Senthamilselvan Palanimurugan Sithi Asma Cyril Copyright (c) 2022 Senthamilselvan, Palanimurugan, Sithi Asma, Cyril 2022-12-06 2022-12-06 22 1 10.12723/mjs.64.8 Statistical optimization of fermentation media for postbiotic metabolite production from Lactobacillus plantarum LG138 of primate origin <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The probiotic metabolites called postbiotics synthesized by consist of range of molecules namely organic acids, antimicrobial peptides, short-chain fatty acids, exopolysaccharide (EPS), cofactors, vitamins, immune-modulating compounds, enzymes, neurotransmitters etc. LABs are widely recognized as an efficient EPS producer. Hence, the goal of the current study is to statistically maximize the media components for maximum exopolysaccharide production by </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Lactobacillus plantarum</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> LG138 from primate feces. The de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium is used for optimization of production process. Batch culture system</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">is used for optimization of</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">exopolysaccharide production in MRS medium using </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Lactobacillus plantarum</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> LG138.</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The optimization process of EPS production improved its yield by 2.7-folds (from 12.00 mg/ml to 32.88 mg/ml).</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">The enhanced EPS yield was achieved after optimization of different media components such as sucrose (5%), ammonium sulfate (1.2%), temperature (32.5⁰C), incubation time (22 h) and pH (6.5) using Response Surface Methodology. The actual experimental value (32.88 mg/ml) was comparable to the predicted maximum EP by </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Lactobacillus plantarum</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> LG138.S production (32.87mg/ml) under optimal conditions for </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">L. plantarum</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> LG138.The </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">in vitro</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> antioxidant assays (free radical scavenging ability and reducing power) revealed antioxidant properties of EPS. These significant activities recommend the possible potential use of EPS in animal food and feed applications. </span></p> Reena Kumari Reenu Kiran Bala Sharma Prem Lata shailja Rangra Dr Savitri Copyright (c) 2023 Reena Kumari Reenu, Kiran Bala Sharma, Prem Lata, shailja Rangra, Dr Savitri 2023-03-06 2023-03-06 22 1 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of antibiotic agents Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Trimethoprim (TMP) by Density Functional Theory <p>In this manuscript, a complete theoretical and experimental investigation of antibiotic agents Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Trimethoprim (TMP) was performed using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) with B3LYP, CAM-B3LTP and B3PW91 levels of theory and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The geometrical parameters of SMX and TMP are computed and compared with literature data.&nbsp; The global reactivity descriptors are estimated from HOMO - LUMO energies to know the chemical reactivity and stability of titled molecules. The MEP study has been used to identify the better electrophilic sites in titled molecules. Mulliken charge analysis has been carried out at the different levels of theories. The NLO parameters are computed for both molecules to check their suitability for NLO applications. The NBO analysis has been used to disclose the most possible intensive intermolecular interactions. The assignment of vibrational spectra of titled molecules has been carried out using assistance of DFT coupled with the VEDA program. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Thipperudrappa Javuku Annoji Reddy R Vibha Prachalith N.C. Ravikantha M.N. Shilpa K.G. Copyright (c) 2023 Thipperudrappa Javuku, Annoji Reddy R, Vibha, Prachalith N.C., Ravikantha M.N., Shilpa K.G. 2023-01-14 2023-01-14 22 1 10.12723/mjs.64.10