Mapana Journal of Sciences <p><strong>Mapana Journal of Sciences (MJS)</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mapana Journal of Sciences (MJS) publishes high-quality original articles that make a significant contribution to the research areas of both theoretical and applied science.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Mapana Journal of Sciences</strong> is included in the <a href=";DiscpName=Arts%20and%20Humanities">UGC-CARE List </a>. (<strong>Group I, Sr.No. 330, Sciences</strong>)</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This journal is an efficient enterprise where the editors play a central role in soliciting the best research papers, and where editorial decisions are reached in a timely fashion. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of the journal is coverage of different aspects of Science. We publish original research, review article and research communications from all areas of the Natural and Mathematical sciences. The journal publishes articles, which are focused on existing and new methods, techniques and approaches in the field of Science. MJS publishes contemporary and innovative research, including theoretical, conceptual and empirical research papers. Primarily it has four themes (namely Physical Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Mathematical and Computational Sciences and Biological Sciences) with many sub themes. Each issue has a theme, though fundamental research contributions in the said domain remain welcome.</span></p> <p><strong>The journal does not charge any article processing or article submission charges from the authors.</strong></p> Centre for Publications, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore en-US Mapana Journal of Sciences 0975-3303 Boltzmann Machines Associated Recommender System: A Review <p>Nowadays, the information on the internet presents explosive growth; similar information from the space of information available overwhelms users. Collaborative filtering is one of the alternatives used for solving this problem. Recommendations are the need of daily life to choose the better alternative from the given choices. Everyone uses recommendations to approach the good items and services in this interconnected world. The recommender system is a software solution to make this process easy. This article presents the application of Boltzmann machines in recommendation systems for the last twenty years.</p> Dheeraj Kumar Sahni Dhiraj Khurana Copyright (c) 2022 Dheeraj Kumar Sahni, Dhiraj Khurana 2022-09-21 2022-09-21 21 3 Role of Defects in the Band Gap Tailoring of Carbon Black <p>With the rise in the need for cost-effective production of graphene-like systems, Carbon Black (CB) is found to be a potential candidate. This report presents the structural modification of Carbon Black (CB) subjected to hydrothermal exfoliation at various temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the graphitic structure with a broad peak, indicating the amorphous nature regardless of the variation in temperatures. Raman spectroscopy revealed that defect intensity increased with the increase in temperature. The band-gaps are found to be 4eV, 2.95eV, 2.86eV and 2.21eV at the exfoliation temperatures 160⁰C,180⁰C,200⁰C and 220⁰C respectively exhibiting a lowering with rise in temperature.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Elma Elizaba Mathew Manoj Balachandran Copyright (c) 2022 Elma Elizaba Mathew, Manoj Balachandran 2022-09-21 2022-09-21 21 3 A Novel and Sustainable Method for the Synthesis of 2-chloro-3-[trans-4-(4-chlorophenyl) cyclohexyl]-1,4-naphthoquinone, accomplished by systematic process development studies - Trans-Cl synthesis <p>Present work reports a novel and commercially viable method for the synthesis of 2-chloro-3-[<em>trans</em>-4-(4-chlorophenyl) cyclohexyl]-1,4-naphthoquinone <strong>1</strong>, a renowned intermediate of Atovaquone (an antimalarial drug). Majority of the prior arts disclose the synthesis of this intermediate from the expensive starting material 2-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone <strong>2</strong>, in relatively low yield. In this regard, it was considered worthwhile to synthesize <strong>1</strong> by a novel route using cheaper starting material 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphtoquinone <strong>5</strong>, in high yield and purity. In the present study, emphasis was given for selecting the reagents and solvents, optimizing the reaction conditions, recovery and reuse of solvents and silver salt. This optimized novel process is cost effective and would generate less effluent. &nbsp;</p> Sanjay Sukumar Saralaya Shashiprabha Shridhara Kanakamajalu Kuppuswamy Nagarajan Koottungalmadhom Ramaswamy Ranganathan Copyright (c) 2022 Sanjay Sukumar Saralaya, Shashiprabha, Shridhara Kanakamajalu, Kuppuswamy Nagarajan, Kousik Ramaswamy Ranganathan 2022-09-21 2022-09-21 21 3 Lossy & Lossless Capacitance Multipliers: A Series of Realization Using VDTAs & Single Grounded Capacitor <p>The article presents new realizations of capacitance multiplier circuits, employing two voltage differencing transconductance amplifiers (VDTAs) and one capacitor without any passive resistors. The equivalent capacitance value of the proposed capacitance simulators can be achieved electronically by regulating the DC bias currents of VDTAs. All the proposed realizations do not require any critical component matching conditions. The lossless floating negative capacitor multiplier (NCM) circuit is studied in detail. The capacitive cancellation scheme and a quadrature sinusoidal oscillator circuit are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the circuit. The effect of the VDTA non-idealities and parasitic on the realized circuits is analysed. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology parameters are presented to reflect the workability of the proposed NCM. </p> Tapas Kumar Paul Suvajit Roy Radha Raman Pal Copyright (c) 2022 Radha Raman Pal, Tapas Kumar Paul, Suvajit Roy 2022-09-21 2022-09-21 21 3 Drug Usage Analysis by VADER Sentiment Analysis on Leading Countries <p>In Twitter people from all part of the planet will build their opinions and take feed from the opinions which produces around five hundred million of tweets daily that amounts regarding 8TB of information. Data which are scrapped from Twitter may be helpful if analyzed as we are able to extract vital information via sentiment analysis. Opinions or comments regarding any news or launch of a product of quite trend may be ascertained well in twitter information. Our aim is to analysis of tweets on use of drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 diseases. In twitter sentiment analysis, we have a tendency to categorize those tweets into positive and negative sentiment and cluster along or a pack of cluster. We have conducted a study and locate that the application will quickly and efficiently distinguish numerous tweets on the idea of their sentiment scores and proportion and may notice weak and powerful positive or negative tweets once clustered with results of various dictionaries and establish a powerful support on our assumption. This paper surveys the polarity activity exploitation using VADER sentiment analysis on the utilization of drug for of COVID-19 treatment.</p> Sandipan Biswas Shivnath Ghosh Copyright (c) 2022 Sandipan Biswas, Shivnath Ghosh 2022-09-21 2022-09-21 21 3