Aadhaar: Its Implementation and Implications
In the light of almost every welfare and non-welfare scheme mandating Aadhaar, it becomes imperative to consider its inevitable implications. The Aadhaar, which was initially conceived for the benefit of BPL families, has been for over a decade forced upon every resident of India. The Supreme Court, in its judgement, while assenting Aadhaar, has adequately addressed the apprehension of the petitioners by striking off or reading down the impugned provisions which invariably set a new legislative agenda for the Parliament. Thus, this Paper attempts to analyse the provisions of Aadhaar, and the legal implications emanating there from. Through this paper, the authors will strenuously aver that though UID was initiated with the objective of streamlining the distribution of basic and fundamental services to the weaker sections, it has now turned into an all pervasive tool which has the potential of arming the Government, private corporate players and hackers with sensitive data.
2. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Notifications under Section 7 of Aadhaar Act,2016 for Mid day meal scheme, http://mdm.nic.in/ Files/CCH_Notification/Gazette%20Notification-CCH-MDM-28-2-2017.pdf(last accessed on 15th April, 2018).
3. Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare, Ministry of Defence, Notification S.O. 747 (E),http://egazette.nic.in/WriteReadData/2017/174639.pdf (last accessed on 15th April, 2018).
4. University Grants Commission D.O. No. F. 8-2/2016, www.ugc.ac.in/pdfnews/4792000_Aadhaar-.pdf (last accessed on 15th April, 2018).
5. The Finance Act, §56, No. 7, Acts of Parliament, 2017 (India).
6. Prevention of Money-laundering (Maintenance of Records) Second Amendment Rules, 2017, Ministry of Finance, http://egazette.nic.in/WriteReadData/2017/176407.pdf (last accessed on 15th April, 2018).
7. Central Board of Secondary Education, ,Requirement of Aadhaar for applicants of NEET-2017, http://cbse.nic.in/newsite/ attach/ NOTIFICATIN%20FOR%20AADHAR-final.pdf (last accessed on 15th April, 2018).
8. Ministry of Communications Access Services Cell File No 800-26/2016-AS II, http://www.dot.gov.in/sites/default/files/Re-verification% 20 extension.PDF (last accessed on 15th April, 2018).
9. Mehal Jain, SC extends deadline for mandatory linkage of Aadhaar with all schemes and services to March 31, Live Law.in (December 15, 2017) https://www.livelaw.in/breaking-sc-extends-deadline-mandatory-linkage-aadhaar-schemes-services-march-31/ (last accessed on 22nd August, 2018).
10. 2018 S.C.C. OnLine S.C. 1642.
11. (2017) 10 S.C.C. 1.
12. Supra note 10.
13. Learned Hand, The Bill of Rights, 72 Harvard University Press, 1958. See also Krithika Ashok, Disinclined to Dissent? A Study of Supreme Court of India, Vol. 1 Indian Law Review 7, 11 (2017) http://dspace.jgu.edu.in:8080/ jspui/bitstream/ 10739/941/1/ Disinclined % 20to%20dissent %20A%20study%20of %20the% 20 Supreme %20Court%20of%20India.pdf (last accessed on: 5th October, 2018).
14. Planning Commission, Government of India, Notification No. A-43011/02/2009 Admn. I, https://uidai.gov.in/ images/ notification _28_ jan_2009.pdf (last accessed on 6th April, 2018).
15. Standing Committee on Finance, Lok Sabha, The National Identification Authority of India Bill, 2010 http://www.prsindia.org/uploads/media/UID/uid%20report.pdf (last accessed on 4th March, 2018).
18. Supra note 10.
19. Supra note 10.
20. UIDAI (Planning Commission), Aadhaar Handbook for Registrars (2010),
http://indiamicrofinance.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Aadhaar-Handbook. pdf, at page 11 (last accessed on 9th October, 2018).
21. UIDAI (Planning Commission), Aadhaar Handbook for Registrars (2013) https://archive.org/stream/aadhaar_handbook_registrars_v3_04062013/aadhaar_handbook_registrars_v3_04062013_djvu.txt (last accssed on 9th October 2018).
22. Infra note 124.
23. Chapter 26- General Rules of Procedure, Rajya Sabha at Work 772, 775 https://rajyasabha.nic.in/rsnew/rsat_work/archive/chapter-26.pdf (last accessed on 20th September, 2018).
25. Statement by Mr. Arun Jaitley, The Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill, 2016, Rajya Sabha (16/03/2016).
26. Supra note 10.
27. Supra note 10.
28. Statement by Mr. Arun Jaitley, The Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill, 2016, Lok Sabha (11/03/2016).
29. Samarth Bansal, Supreme Court Judgment on Aadhaar leads to confusion in private sector, Hindustan Times (September, 27th, 2018) (last accessed on 28th September, 2018).
30. Supra note 10.
31. Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India, 2013 (12) SCALE 232. (India)
32. Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India, MANU/SCOR/22662/2015.
33. Unique Identification Authority of India v. Central Bureau of Investigation, (2017) 7 S.C.C. 157.
34. Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India, 2015 (8) SCALE 747.
35. Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India, MANU/SCOR/11831/2015.
37. 2017 (6) SCALE 698.
38. Supra note 5.
39. (2017) 7 S.C.C. 59. (India)
41. (1971) 1 S.C.C. 442.
42. Supra note 36.
43. Supra note 10.
44. Supra note 10.
45. State of Assam v. Barak Upatyaka, (2009) 5 S.C.C. 694.
46. Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, 1978 A.I.R. S.C. 597.
47. Justice K.S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India, (2017) 10 S.C.C. 1.
48. Amber Sinha and Srinivas Kodali, Information Security Practices of Aadhaar (or lack thereof), The Centre for Internet and Society 3, (May 2017), https://cis-india.org/internet.../information-security-practices-of-aadhaar-or-lack-there (last accessed on 28th March, 2018).
49. Tech Desk, Reliance Jio data breach: Here’s why it is a big deal, what it means for users and more¸ Indian Express, (July 11th, 2017) https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/tech-news-technology/reliance-jio-data-breached-120-million-users-why-it-matters-what-it-means-for-you-and-everything-to-know-4743592/ (last accessed on 17th July, 2018).
50. PTI, UIDAI suspends Airtel, Airtel Payment Bank’s Ekyclicence, The Hindu, (December 16th, 2017) https://www.thehindu.com/business/Industry/uidai-suspends-airtel-airtel-payments-banks-ekyc-licence/article21822439.ece (last accessed on 17th March, 2018).
51. Manish Bansal v. State of N.C.T. of Delhi, Crl. M.A. No. 31411/ 2018 (exemption). See also, Akanksha Jain, Misuse of Aadhaar Verification, Linkage Process: HC Worried About Disastrous Consequences, Registers Suo Motu PIL, Livelaw (September 13th, 2018) https://www.livelaw.in/ misuse-of-aadhaar-verification-linkage-process-hc-worried-about-disastrous-consequences-registers-suo-motu-pil-read-order/ (last accessed on: 10th October, 2018).
52. https://www.trustid.in/faq (last accessed on 6th April, 2018).
54. Tribune Investigation, Rs 500, 10 minutes, and you have access to billion Aadhaar details, Tribune India, (January 4th, 2018), https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/snowden-says-programmes-like-aadhaar-result-in-abuse/article22403424.ece (last accessed on 17th April, 2018).
55. Sruthi Radhakrishnan, Snowden says programmes like Aadhaar result in abuse, The Hindu, (January 9th, 2018), https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/snowden-says-programmes-like-aadhaar-result-in-abuse/article22403424.ece (last accessed on 17th April, 2018).
56. Supra note 10.
57. Express Web Desk, MS Dhoni’s Aadhaar details made public, Ravi Shankar Prasad promises action, Indian Express (March 29th, 2017), https://indianexpress.com/article/india/sakshi-dhoni-raises-privacy-issue-after-ms-dhoni-aadhaar-details-made-public-on-twitter-ravi-shankar-prasad-promises-action-4590310/ (last accessed on18th April, 2018).
58. Data Security Council of India, Reasonable Security Practices- I..T. Amendment Act, 2008, October 10th, 2018 (last accessed on 11th October, 2018) https://www.dsci.in/sites/default/files/Reasonable_Security_Practices_Under_IT_Amendment_Act2008.pdf.
59. Infra note 125.
60. Supra note 10.
61. The Ahemdabad St. Xavier’s Society v. State of Gujarat (1974) 1 S.C.C. 717.
62. Supra note 10.
63. Jean Dreze, Following the grain trail: on India’s Public Distribution System, The Hindu, (January 17th, 2018) https://www.thehindu.com/ opinion/lead/following-the-grain-trail/article22451645.ece (last accessed on 21st March, 2018); Deepshikha Ghosh, No Aadhaar, No food? Girl, 11, died ‘begging for rice’, says Jharkhand family, N.D.T.V. (October 17th, 2017) https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/no-aadhaar-no-food-11-year-old-girl-died-begging-for-rice-says-jharkhand-family-1763863 (last accessed on 20th March, 2018).
64. Sakshi Dayal, No Aadhaar, Gurgaon hospital turns away woman, she gives birth right outside¸ Indian Express, (February 10th, 2018) https://indianexpress.com/article/india/no-aadhaar-hospital-turns-away-woman-she-gives-birth-right-outside-5058006/ (last accessed on 20th March, 2018).
65. U.I.D.A.I., Government of India, Exception handling in Public Distribution Services and other welfare schemes¸ Circular No. 23011/Gen/2014/Legal-UIDAI (last accessed on 10th October, 2018) https:// uidai.gov.in/ images/tenders/Circular_relating_to_Exception_handling_25102017.pdf.
66. Department of Electronic and Information Technology, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. NotificationG.S.R. 993(E) http://meity.gov.in/writereaddata/files/UIDAI%20CII%20notification%20Dec15.pdf(last accessed on 25th March, 2018).
67. Supra note 10.
68. Federal Census Act Case, (1983) BVerfGE 1.
69. Supra note 10.
70. Michael Mimoso, Meet David Dworken, the teenager who hacked the Pentagon, The Christian Science Monitor (July 5th, 2016) https://www.csmonitor.com/World/Passcode/Security-culture/2016/0705/Meet-David-Dworken-the-teenager-who-hacked-the-Pentagon (last accessed on 30th August, 2018).
71. PTI, UIDAI denies information on fake Aadhaar cards, says it might affect national security, Financial Express, (June 11th, 2017) https://www.financialexpress.com/india-news/uidai-denies-information-on-fake-aadhaar-cards-says-it-might-affect-national-security/712257/ (last accessed on 21st June, 2018).
72. Manu Subastian, Use of Aadhaar to get Mobile SIM Connections: Legal Issues Involved, Live Law.in (December 5th, 2017) https:// www.livelaw.in/use-aadhaar-get-mobile-sim-connections-legal-issues-involved/ (last accessed on: 2nd October, 2018).
73. Amber Sinha, Analysis of Key Provisions of the Aadhaar Act Regulations, The Centre for Internet and Society, (March 31st, 2017) https://cis-india.org/internet-governance/blog/analysis-of-key-provisions-of-aadhaar-act-regulations (last accessed on: 3rd October, 2018).
74. Supra note 10.
75. Rajya Sabha, Short Duration Discussion, (April 10th, 2017) http://rsdebate.nic.in/handle/123456789/670853 (last accessed on 21st September, 2018)
76. Soumen Chakrabarti et al, A Question of Identity: What Should Aadhaar Be Like?, I.I.T. Bombay, 1, 7, https://www.cse.iitb.ac.in/ identity/ docs/aadhaar-whitepaper.pdf (last accessed on 21st September, 2018).
77. Shweta Agrawal et al, Privacy and Security of Aadhaar: A Computer Science perspective, Computer Science and Engineering, I.I.T. Delhi, 1, 7 http://www.cse.iitd.ernet.in/~suban/reports/aadhaar.pdf (last accessed on 4th April, 2018).
78. Infra note 83.
79. Supra note 77.
80. Supra note 77.
81. Supra note 77.
82. Infra note 83.
83. Authentication Division, UIDAI, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Notification F. No. K- 11020/217/2018-UIDAI (Auth-I) https:// uidai.gov.in/ images/resource/ UIDAI_Circular _11012018.pdf (last accessed on 22nd March, 2018).
84. Infra note 125.
85. Ople vs. Torres 293 S.C.R.A. 141 (1998).
86. Id. See also, Sloan, I. Law of Privacy Rights in a Technological Society, p. 6 .
87. Decision No. 2012-652 D.C of March 22, 2012; See also, EDRi, France: Biometric ID database found unconstitutional, European Digital Rights, March 28, 2012 https://edri.org/edrigramnumber10-6french-biometric-database-unconstitutional/ (last accessed on 19th April, 2018).
88. §3(1), Identity Cards Act, Act of Parliament, 2006
89. §5(5) (b), Identity Cards Act, Act of Parliament, 2006
90. §1(1), Identity Cards Act, Act of Parliament, 2006
91. §2, Identity Cards Act, Act of Parliament, 2006
92. §3, Identity Cards Act, Act of Parliament, 2006
93. Identity cards scheme will be axed ‘within 100 days’, B.B.C. News (May 27th, 2010) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8707355.stm#backupthere (last accessed on 28th March, 2018).
94. Roy Jordan, Law and Bills Digest Section, Identity Cards and the Access Card, Parliament of Australia, (February, 2006). https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/Publications_Archive/archive/identitycards (last accessed on 15th March, 2018).
95. Graham Greenleaf, The Australia Card: towards a national surveillance system, 25, Law Society Journal 1, 2 (1987) https://papers.ssrn.com/ sol3/ papers.cfm?abstract_id=2195493 (last accessed on: 24th September, 2018).
96. The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Report of the Joint Committee on an Australia Card, May 1986https:// www.aph.gov.au/ Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Significant_Reports/auscard/report/index (last accessed on 19th March, 2018).
97. Transcript of the Prime Minister the Hon John Howard MP Joint Press Conference with the Attorney-General, the Hon Philip Ruddock MP and the Minister for Human Services, the Hon Joe Hockey MP, Parliament House, Canberra, Beaconsfield Gold Mine, access card; Solomon Islands¸ April 26th, 2006 https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/ search/ display/ display.w3p;query=Id:%22media/pressrel/NNGJ6%22 (last accessed on 28th August, 2018).
99. Electronic Frontiers Australia Access Card/ National ID card, (February 10th, 2008) https://www.efa.org.au/Issues/Privacy/accesscard.html (last accessed on 23rd March, 2018).
100. Supra note 25.
101. Supra note 77.
102. GAO, Government and Commercial Use of the Social Security Number is widespread¸ GAO/ HEHS-99-28 (House of Representatives: February 1999) https://www.gao.gov/assets/230/226868.pdf (last accessed on 27th March, 2018).
104. O.L.R. Research Report, Social Security Number Identifiers,(The Connecticut General Assembly: October 18th, 1994) https:// www.cga.ct.gov/ PS94/rpt/olr/htm/94-R-0864.htm (last accessed on 27th August, 2018).
105. GAO, Social Security Numbers: Federal and State laws restrict use of SSNs, yet gap remains¸ GAO-05-1016T (New York State Assembly: September 2005) https://www.gao.gov/new.items/d051016t.pdf (last accessed on 16th July, 2018).
106. Supra note 11.
107. Supra note 10.
108. Supra note 46.
109. Supra note 10.
110. Supra note 28.
111. Statement by Mr. Jairam Ramesh, The Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill, 2016, Rajya Sabha (16/03/2016) http://rsdebate.nic.in/handle/123456789/659299(last accessed on 21st September, 2018).
112. Government of India, Economic Survey 2016-17, https:// www.thehinducentre.com/multimedia/archive/03193/Economic_Survey_20_3193543a.pdf (last accessed on 12th October, 2018).
113. Supra note 10.
114. Supra note 10.
115. Arsalaan F. Rashid, Biometric Finger Print Identification: Is It a Reliable Tool or Not?, Volume 35 Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine 109, 110 (2013) http://medind.nic.in/jal/t13/i2/jalt13i2p109.pdf
116. P. Grother et al, Temporal Stability of Iris Recognition Accuracy, National Institute of Standards and Technology 1 (2013) https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/ir/2013/NIST.IR.7948.pdf.
117. Nancy Yue Liu, Bio-Privacy: Privacy Regulations and the Challenge of Biometrics, 68 A Glass House Book (2012).
118. Supra note 10.
119. Supra note 65.
120. Thangal Kunju Musaliar v. Venkatachalam Potti, Authorised Official and Income Tax Officer and Anr., A.I.R. (1956) S.C. 246; Sushil Kumar Sharma v. Union of India, (2005) 6 S.C.C. 281.
121. Supra note 10.
122. Supra note 10.
123. Supra note 11.
124. Supra note 10.
125. Committee of Experts under the Chairmanship of Justice B.N. Srikrishna, A Free and Fair Digital Economy Protecting Privacy, Empowering Indian http://pibphoto.nic.in/documents/Others/2018727xcxzcx151.pdf (last accessed on 5th August, 2018).
126. (2010) 10 S.C.C. 715.
127. (2008) 1 S.C.C. 180.
128. SaubhadraChatterji, Aadhaar may become only identity card in future, to help curb text fraud: Jaitley, Hindustan Times, (April 26th, 2017) https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/aadhaar-may-become-only-identity-card-in-future-says-jaitley/story-EKUQ9QRITNkl6wFFfJA5nJ.html (last accessed on 12th June, 2018).
129. J. Mitchell Pickerill, The Supreme Court and Congress: What happens in Congress after the Court Strikes Down Legislation?, 7 American Bar Association 10 (2006) https://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/images/public_education/supremecourtcongress.pdf.
130. Kumar Uttam, Supreme Court Order on Aadhaar Lays Good Governance Road Map, Says Ravi Shankar Prasad, Hindustan Times (September 26th, 2018) https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/supreme-court-order-on-aadhaar-lays-good-governance-road-map-says-ravi-shankar-prasad/story-X1ITe9K9KB64JeZ6k1Lt2I.html (last accessed on: 29th September, 2018).
131. Supra note 10. See also, Robert Gellman, Privacy and Biometric ID Systems: An Approach Using Fair Information Practices for Developing Countries, Centre for Global Development (2013) https:// www.cgdev.org/ sites/ default/ files/ privacy-and-biometric-ID-systems_0.pdf (last accessed on: 5th October, 2018).