Analysis of electrical measurements oncadmium chloridedoped PVA-PVP blend

  • Basavarajeshwari M Baraker Karnatak University's Karnatak Science College
  • Blaise Lobo Karnatak University's Karnatak Science College
Keywords: Electrical conductivity, VRH model, Cadmium Chloride, PVA-PVP blend, Arrhenius relation

Abstract

Films of Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) - Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) blend, doped withcadmium chloride (CdCl2) from 0.5 wt% up to 40 wt% andprepared by solution casting method,were studied using temperature dependent direct current (DC)electrical measurements. The DC electrical data were analyzed using Variable Range Hopping (VRH) modelin the temperature range varying from 303K up to 318K. The Mott parameters are determined. The study of time evolution of current passing through the sample, when a constant voltage is applied across it reveals that ions are the majority charge carriers, but the role of electrons in charge transport cannot be neglected. The activation energy (Ea) for mobility of charge carriers has been calculated from VRHand Arrhenius models.

Author Biographies

Basavarajeshwari M Baraker, Karnatak University's Karnatak Science College

Karnatak University's Karnatak Science College, Dharwad, Karnataka, India

Blaise Lobo, Karnatak University's Karnatak Science College

Karnatak University's Karnatak Science College, Dharwad, Karnataka, India

References

1. A. M. Stephan, Eur. Polym. J. 42, 21 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/j.eurpolymj.2005.09.017
2. Y. Wang, K. S. Chen, J. Mishler, S. C. Cho, X. C. Adroher, Applied Energy 88, 981 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.09.030
3. M. Hussain, Y. H. Ko and Y. H. Choa, J. Nanomaterials2016, ID 8515103 (2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8515103
4. S. Thomas, R. Shanks, S. Chandrasekharakurup “Nanostructured Polymer Blends”, (2014) Elsevier Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4557-3159-6.00001-8
5. A. G. Skirtach, C. Dejugnat, D. Braun, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, W. J. Parak, H. Möhwald and G. B. Sukhorukov, Nano Lett. 5 (7), 1371 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl050693n
6. X. Wang, G. Li, T. Chen, M. Yang, Z. Zhang, T. Wu and H. Chen, Nano Lett. 8 (9), 2643 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl080820q
7. M. Krumova, D. López, R. Benavente, C. Mijangosand J. M. Pereña,Polymer 41(26), 9265 (2000).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00287-1
8. G. Paradossi, F. Cavalieri, E. Chiessi, C. Spagnoliand M. K. Cowman,J. Mater. Sci: Mater in Medicine14(8), 68 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024907615244
9. B. Lobo, M. R. Ranganath, T. S. G. Ravi Chandran, G. VenugopalRao, V. Ravindracharyand S. Gopal, Phys. Rev. B. 59, 13693 (1999).http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.59.13693
10. M. Abdelazizand M. M. Ghannam, Physica B: Cond. Matt.405(3),958 (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2009.10.030
11. R. F. Bhajantri, V. Ravindrachary, A. Harisha, C. Ranganathaiahand G. N. Kumaraswamy,Appl. Phys.87(4), 797 (2007).http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00339-007-3923-y
12. S. Kramadhatiand K. Thyagrajan, Int. J. Eng. Res. and development. 6(8), 2013 (2013). e-ISSN: 2278-067X, p-ISSN: 2278-800X,www.ijerd.com
13. O. Gh. Abdullah, S. A. Hussenand A. Alani, Asian Transactions on Science & Technology 1(4),1 (2011). http://www.asian-transactions.org/Journals/Vol01Issue04/ATST/ATST-40106045.pdf
14. F. Haaf, A. SannerandF. Straub,Polym. J.17, 143 (1985).http://dx.doi.org/10.1295/polymj.17.143
15. M. Ravi, Y. Pavani, K. Kiran Kumar, S. Bhavani, A. K. Sharmaand V.V.R. NarasimhaRao, Mater. Chem. and Phy. 130, 442(2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2011.07.006
16. Chang J Y, Godovsky D Y, Han M J, Hassan C M, Kim J, Lee B, Lee Y, Peppas N A, Quirk R P and Yoo T. Biopolymers PVA hydrogels anionic polymerization nanocomposites. 1st ed. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. (2000).https://books.google.co.in/books?id=MwdqCQAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
17. J. Lu, Q. Nguyen, J. Zhouand Z-H. Ping, J. Appl.Polym. Sci.89(10), 2808 (2003). http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.12486
18. Show-An ChenandHsun-Tsing Lee, Macromolecules28(8), 2858 (1995). http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma00112a035
19. N. Rajeswari, S. Selvasekarapandian , S. Karthikeyan, C. Sanjeeviraja,Y. Iwaiand J. Kawamura,Ionics,19(8), 1105 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11581-012-0838-1
20. E. M. Abdelrazek, I. S. Elashmawi, A. El-khodaryand A. Yassin, Curr. Appl. Phys.10(2),607 (2010).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cap.2009.08.005
21. I. S. Elashmawiand H. E. Abdel Baieth, Curr. Appl. Phys.12(1), 141 (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cap.2011.05.011
22. H. M. Ragab, Physica B: Cond. Matt.406(20), 3759 (2011).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2010.11.030
23. M. Pandey, G. M. Joshi, K. Deshmukhand J. Ahmad, Adv. Mater.Lett.6(2), 165 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.5185/amlett.2015.5639
24. B. M. Baraker, P. B. Hammannavar and B. Lobo. AIP Conf. Proc.1665, 070037(1-3) (2015).http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4917901
25. B. M. Baraker, B. Lobo, J. Polym. Res. 24 (5), 84 (2017). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10965-017-1242-3
26. B. M. Baraker, B. Lobo, Can. J. Phys.(in Press) 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjp-2016-0848
27. B. M. Baraker and B. Lobo, Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys.54 (10), 634 (2016). http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/35893
28. T. Pradeep. Nano: The Essentials, Understanding Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.(2007). ISBN 0-07-061788-0
29. K. Kiran Kumar, M. Ravi, Y. Pavani , S. Bhavani, A.K. Sharma and V.V.R. NarasimhaRao, Physica, 406, 1706 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2011.02.010
30. R.M.Hodge, G.H. Edward and G.P.Simon, Polym.37(8), 1371 (1996). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0032-3861(96)81134-7
31. A.Arsenlis andD. M Parks,ActaMaterialia47(5), 1597 (1999). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6454(99)00020-8
32. G. Krishna Bama, P. Indra Devi and K. Ramachandran, J. Mater. Sci.44(5), 1302 (2009). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10853-009-3271-8
33. J. D. Hanawalt, H. W. Rinn and L. K. FrevelInd. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed., 10 (9), 457 (1938). http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac50125a001
34. S. Fuyat, Natl. Bur. Stand.(U.S), Circ. 539 (III), 10, (1954)
35. C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, Jr, Y. W. Park, A. J. Heeger, H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau and A. G. MacDiarmid, Phy. Rev. Lett. 40, 1472 (1978).http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.39.1098
36. C. C. Ku, R. Liepins. Electrical Properties of Polymers: Chemical principles. Hanser publishers, Munich Vienna. 1993.http://tocs.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/7550057.pdf
37. P. Sharma, D. K. Kanchan, N. Gondaliya, M. Pant and M. S. Jayswal, Ionics,19(2), 301 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11581-012-0738-4
38. J. B. Gonzalez-Campos, E. Prokhorov, I. C. Sanchez, J. G. Luna-Barcenas, A. Manzano-Ramırez, J. Gonzalez-Hernandez, Y. Lopez-Castro andR. E. del Rıo, J. Nanomat. 2012, 1 (2012).http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/925750
39. S. Mahendiaa, A. K. Tomar and S. Kumar, J. Alloys and Compounds, 508(2), 406 (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.08.075
40. F. Lux, J. Mater. Sci.28(2), 285 (1993). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00357799
41. P. B. Bhargav, B. A. Sarada, A. K. Sharma and V. V. R. N. Rao, J. Macro. Sci. Part A, 47(2), 131 (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10601320903458564
42. A. Yildiz, S. B. Lisesivdin, M. Kasap and D. Mardare,J. Non-Cryst. Solids,354(45), 4944 (2008).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2008.07.009
43. K. P. Nazeer, M. Thamilselvan, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass and J. Yi, J.Polym. Res.13(1),17 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10965-005-9007-9
44. N. F. Mottand E. A. Davis. Electronic processes in Non-crystalline Materials. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press. 1979.ISBN: 9780199645336
45. V.Ambiegaskar, B.I.Halperin and J.S. Langer, Phy. Rev.34, 2612 (1972). http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.4.2612
46. R.P.Sharma, A.K.Shukla, A.K.Kapoor, R.Srivastava and P.C.Mathur,J.Appl. Phys.57(6), 2026 (1985). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.334390
47. J. B. Wagner and C. Wagner, J. Chem. Phy.,26, 1597 (1957). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1743590
48. R. C. Agrawal, Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 37(4), 294 (1999). http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/27118/1/IJPAP%2037(4)%20294-301.pdf
Published
2017-01-29
Section
Research Articles