On the Combined Role of Strong and Electroweak Interactions in Understanding Nuclear Binding Energy Scheme


  • Seshavatharam Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • S Lakshminarayana Department of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India




4G model of final unification; Four gravitational constants; Unified nuclear binding energy scheme; Free or unbound nucleons; Strong interaction; Electroweak interaction


An attempt is made toa model the atomic nucleus as a combination of bound and free or unbound nucleons. Due to strong interaction, bound nucleons help in increasing nuclear binding energy and due to electroweak interaction, free or unbound nucleons help in decreasing nuclear binding energy. In this context, with reference to proposed 4G model of final unification and strong interaction, recently we have developed a unified nuclear binding energy scheme with four simple terms, one energy coefficient of 10.1 MeV and two small numbers 0.0016 and 0.0019. In this paper, by eliminating the number 0.0019, we try to fine tune the estimation procedure of number of free or unbound nucleons pertaining to the second term with an energy coefficient of 11.9 MeV. Interesting observation is that, Z can be considered as a characteristic representation of range of number of bound isotopes of  Z. 


Royer G, Subercaze A (2013) Coefficients of different macro-microscopic mass formulae from the AME2012 atomic mass evaluation. Nuclear Physics A 917: 1-14

Cht Mavrodiev S, Deliyergiyev MA (2018) Modification of the nuclear landscape in the inverse problem framework using the generalized Bethe-Weizsäcker mass formula. Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 27: 1850015

Xia, X. W., Lim, Y., Zhao, P. W., Liang, H. Z., Qu, X. Y., Chen, Y., &Meng, J. (2018). The limits of the nuclear landscape explored by the relativistic continuum Hartree–Bogoliubov theory. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, 121, 1-215.

Möller, P., Sierk, A. J., Ichikawa, T., & Sagawa, H. (2016). Nuclear ground-state masses and deformations: FRDM (2012). Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, 109, 1-204.

Niels Walet (2001) P615: Nuclear and Particle Physics (UMIST, Manchester, UK) Chapter 4 p 33

Ghahramany N, Sh Gharaati, Ghanaatian M, Hora H (2011) New scheme of nuclide and nuclear binding energy from quark-like model. Iranian Journal of Science & Technology. A3: 201-208

Ghahramany, N., Gharaati, S., & Ghanaatian, M. (2012). New approach to nuclear binding energy in integrated nuclear model. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics, 6(1), 3.

Seshavatharam UVS and Lakshminarayana S.. (2019). On the role of large nuclear gravity in understanding strong coupling constant, nuclear stability range, binding energy of isotopes and magic proton numbers–A Critical Review. Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, 6(2), 142-160

Seshavatharam UVS and Lakshminarayana S. (2019). Role of Four Gravitational Constants in Nuclear Structure. Mapana-Journal of Sciences, 18(1), 21-46.

Seshavatharam UVS and Lakshminarayana S. (2020) Implications and Applications of Fermi Scale Quantum Gravity. International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal. 2(1): 13-30

Seshavatharam UVS and Lakshminarayana S. (2019) On the Role of Squared Neutron Number in Reducing Nuclear Binding Energy in the Light of Electromagnetic, Weak and Nuclear Gravitational Constants – A Review. Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics, 2(3): 1-22.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S (2019) On The Role of Nuclear Quantum Gravity In Understanding Nuclear Stability Range of Z = 2 to 118. J. Nucl. Phys. Mat. Sci. Rad. A 7(1): 43–51.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. (2020) Significance and Applications of the Strong Coupling Constant in the Light of Large Nuclear Gravity and Up and Down Quark Clusters. International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal 2(1):56-68.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. (2020) Understanding nuclear stability and binding energy with powers of the strong coupling constant. Mapana Journal of Sciences. 19(1), 35-70.

Seshavatharam UVS and Lakshminarayana S. (2020) Semi Empirical Derivations Pertaining to 4G Model of Final Unification. International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal 2(1): 69-74

Tanabashi et al (2018) Review of Particle Physics: Particle Data Group. Phy. Rev. D. 98

Mohr P. J, Newell D. B and Taylor B. N. (2014) CODATA recommended values of the fundamental constants: Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 035009

Junfei Wu, Qing Li, Jianping Liu, Chao Xue, Shanqing Yang, Chenggang Shao,Liangcheng Tu, Zhongkun Hu, and Jun Luo. (2019) Progress in Precise Measurements of the Gravitational Constant. Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 531, 1900013

Seshavatharam UVS and Lakshminarayana S. (2020) On the Compactification and Reformation of String Theory with Three Large Atomic Gravitational Constants. To be appeared in International Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics.

Fermi E. Tentativo di una teoria dei raggi β. (1933) La Ricerca Scientifica (in Italian). 2 (12)

F. Englert and R. Brout. (1964) Broken Symmetry and the Mass of Gauge Vector Mesons. Physical Review Letters, 13( 9), 321-323

Higgs P. (1964) Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons. Physical Review Letters. 13 (16): 508–509

Giuliani, Samuel A, Matheson, Zachary, Nazarewicz, Witold, Olsen, Erik, Reinhard, P, Sadhukhan, Jhilam, Schuetrumpf, Bastian, Schunck, Nicolas, Schwerdtfeger, Peter. (2019) Colloquium: Super heavy elements: Oganesson and beyond. Rev. Mod. Phys. 91: 011001

Gottfried Münzenberg (2018) Super Heavy Elements - experimental developments. EPJ Web of Conferences 182: 02091