Forensic Analysis of Strontium and Barium Sulphate as a Perceptive Factor by Non-Destructive Method for Tool Paint


  • Thangadurai S. alagappa university
  • Sithi Asma B.
  • Palanimurugan A.
  • Cyril A.



Forensic Tools, Paint Analysis, Discriminate, SEM, Correlation


New advances in the growth of research methodologies to evaluate various tools are crucial, so as to create the best evaluation possible about whether a paint residue seized at a crime scene arises from a tool detected. Standard analytical techniques are not used to evaluate the red tools when it comes to the prospective use of X-ray navigators. In this study, the trace amounts of strontium and barium revealed by XRD, the main mineral filler, namely strontium sulphate and barium sulphate, a statistical approach was used, and it can diagnose some forensic tool paint during a home invasion. This work is the best example among others of XRD for enhanced characterisation of tool paints in an effective method.


K. J. Kruglak, D. Mara, K. Brooke, V. Maxwell, A. J. Reffner, “The Evidentiary Significance of Automotive Paint from the Northeast: A Study of Red Paint”. J. Forensic Sci., 1- 14, Jan 2019. http//doi:10.1111/1556-4029.14007

L. Danny, M. Cyril, E. Pierre, M. Geneviève, “Combining spectroscopic data in the forensic analysis of paint: Application of a multiblock technique as chemometric tool”. . Forensic Sci. Int , vol 263, 39–47, 2016. http//doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.03.049`

Desiderio, Vincent J.; Taylor, Chris E.; DaÃcid, Niamh Nic (2020). Handbook of Trace Evidence Analysis || Paints and Polymers. , 10.1002/9781119373438(), 157–218. doi:10.1002/9781119373438.ch3

K. B. Ferreira, A. G. Oliveira, J. A. Gomes, “Raman spectroscopy of automotive paints: Forensic analysis of variability and spectral quality”, Spectrosc. Lett., Vol. 50(2) 102–110, 2017. http//doi:10.1080/00387010.2017.1288635

L. V. Jungang, Z. Wen, L. Shuo, C. Rui, F. Jimin, Z. Songdong, L. Yong, “Analysis of 52 automotive coating samples for forensic purposes with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman microscopy”, Environ 17(1) 59–67, 2015. http//doi:10.1080/15275922.2015.1091403

Z. P. Janina, T. Beata, K. Paweł, “ Comparative Analysis of Car Paint Traces in Terms of Color by VIS Microspectrometry for Forensic Needs”. Anal. Lett, 43(3), 436–445, 2010. http//doi:10.1080/00032710903402358

Z. P. Janina, M. Aleksandra, “Characterization of Blue Pigments Used in Automotive Paints by Raman Spectroscopy”, J. Forensic Sci, vol 59(4) 943–949, 2014. http//doi:10.1111/1556-4029.12499

R. K. Shelby, A. F. Marisia, M. Ewelina, A. Yasmine, H. Lenka, B. Justin, K. L. Igor, “Bloodstains, Paintings, and Drugs: Raman Spectroscopy Applications in Forensic Science”. Forensic Chem., vol 1- 45, 2018. http//doi:10.1016/j.forc.2018.02.002

F. Govaert, M. Bernard, “Discriminating red spray paints by optical microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence”. Forensic Sci. Int ,vol 140(1) 61–70, 2004. http//doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2003.11.015

F. Mylène, M. Vanessa, M. Cyril, “A random object-oriented population study of household paints measured by infrared spectroscopy”. Forensic Sci. Int , vol 297, 72–80, 2019. http//doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.01.045.

Sébastien charles, Winterbui, Thomascanler, Alexandrecarnevali, Strontium in barium sulphate as a discriminating factor in the forensic analysis of tool paint by SEM/EDS, Forensic Sci. Int, Volume 331, February 2022, 111127. Https://

M. Mark, M. James, C. Robert Bernard, B. Candice, “DART-MS: A New Analytical Technique for Forensic Paint Analysis”, Anal. Chem., vol 1, 1- 27, 2018. http//doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.8b01067

D. M. Wright, M. J. Bradley, A. H. Mehltretter, “Analysis and discrimination of architectural paint samples via a population study”. Forensic Sci. Int., vol 209(1-3) 86–95, 2011. http//doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.01.001

M. Mark, V. B. Wilhelm, W. L. Simon, P. Kari, “Synchrotron FTIR characterisation of automotive primer surfacer paint coatings for forensic purposes”, Talanta, vol 118, 156–161, 2014. http//doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2013.10.016

D. J. Melo, S. N. G. Silva, S. M. Henrique, B. Candice, M. Mark, G. J. Andrade, “Automotive paint analysis: How far has science advanced in the last ten years”, TRAC-Trend anal chem vol 132 1- 12, 2020. http//doi:10.1016/j.trac.2020.116061.

B. Trzcińska, J. Z. Palus, P. Kościelniak, “Application of microspectrometry in the visible range to differentiation of car paints for forensic purposes”. J. Mol. Struct , vol 924-926 , 393–399, 2009. http//doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2008.10.037

I. Nakai, Y. Ono, Q. Li, Y. Nishiwaki, K. Tanaka, S. Nakayama, “Capability of a TES microcalorimeter SEM-EDS system for forensic analysis of automotive paint and gunshot residue”. Surf. Interface Anal ,vol 42(5), 402–410, 2010. http//doi:10.1002/sia.3113.

M. Agnieszka, Z. Grzegorz, N. Tereza, M. Aleksandra, D. Nema, “Hybrid approach combining chemometrics and likelihood ratio framework for reporting the evidential value of spectra”. Anal. Chim. Acta, vol 931, 34–46. 2016. http//doi:10.1016/j.aca.2016.05.016

W. T. Chang, T. H. Chen, C. C. Yu, J. Y. Kau, “Comparison of embedding methods used in examining cross-sections of automotive paints with microFourier transform infrared spectroscopy”, J. Forensic Sci. pp. 55-60, 2002.

J. Z. Palus, R. Borusiewicz, “Examination of multilayer paint coats by the use of infrared, Raman and XRF spectroscopy for forensic purposes”. J. Mol. Struct , vol 792-793, 286–292, 2006. http//doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2006.03.072

J.M. Challinor, “Forensic applications of pyrolysis capillary gas chromatography”, Forensic Sci. Int , vol 21(3), 269–285, 1983. http//doi:10.1016/0379-0738(83)90132-9.

P. Buzzini, G. Massonnet, S. Birrer, N. M. Egli, W. Mazzella, A. Fortini, “Survey of crowbar and household paints in burglary cases population studies, transfer and interpretation”. Forensic Sci. Int , vol 152(2-3), 221–234, 2005. http//doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.09.116

A. M. Robert, “(Applications, Theory and Instrumentation) || Gas Chromatography in Forensic Science”. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry , 1- 27, 2006. http//doi:10.1002/9780470027318.a9097

K. B Ferreira, A. G. G. Oliveira, A. S. Gonçalves, J. A. Gomes, “Evaluation of Hyperspectral Imaging Visible/Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a forensic tool for automotive paint distinction”. Forensic Chem., vol 5, 46–52, 2017. http//doi:10.1016/j.forc.2017.06.001

G. Payne, C. Wallace, B. Reedy, C. Lennard, R. Schuler, D. Exline, C. Roux , “Visible and near-infrared chemical imaging methods for the analysis of selected forensic samples”, Talanta, 67(2), 1–344, 2005. http://doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2005.03.042

T. Mukai, H. Nakazumi, S.I. Kawabata, M. Kusatani, S. Nakai, S. Honda, Direct Identification of Various Copper Phthalocyanine Pigments in Automotive Paints and Paint Smears by Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry. J. Forensic Sci , vol 53(1), 107–115, 2008. http//doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2007.00626.x

N. C. Scherrer, Z. Stefan, D. Francoise, F. Annette, K. Renate, “Synthetic organic pigments of the 20th and 21st century relevant to artist's paints: Raman spectra reference collection”. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. , vol 73(3), 505–524, 2009. http//doi:10.1016/j.saa.2008.11.029

L. Huang and D. Beauchemin, “Forensic analysis of Automotive paint chips for the identification of the vehicle manufacturer, colour and year of production using electrothermal vaporization coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry”, J. Anal. At. Spectrom, 1- 7, 2017. http//doi:10.1039/C7JA00196G

K. A. Kopchick, C. R. Bommarito, “Color Analysis of Apparently Achromatic Automotive Paints by Visible Microspectrophotometry”. J. Forensic Sci , vol 51(2), 340–343, 2006. http//doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00050.

M. Szafarska, M. Woźniakiewicz, M. Pilch, J. Z. Palus, P. Kościelniak, “Computer analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra of paint samples for forensic purposes”. J. Mol. Struct , vol 924-926, 504–513, 2009. http//doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2008.11.048

M. Bovens, B. Ahrens, I. Alberink, A. Nordgaard, T. Salonen, S. Huhtala, “Chemometrics in forensic chemistry — Part I: Implications to the Forensic Workflow”. Forensic Sci. Int , 1- 38, 2009. http//doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.05.030

L. Ortiz-Herrero, I. Cardaba, S. Setien, L. Bartolomé, M. L. Alonso, M. I. Maguregui, “OPLS multivariate regression of FTIR-ATR spectra of acrylic paints for age estimation in contemporary artworks”. Talanta, 205, 1- 11, 2009. http//doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2019.120114

M. Aleksandra, M. Agnieszka, Z. P. Janina, Z. Grzegorz, “Application of a likelihood ratio approach in solving a comparison problem of Raman spectra recorded for blue automotive paints”. J. Raman Spectrosc., 46(9), 772–783 2015. http// doi:10.1002/jrs.4719.

Abdel-Maksoud, Gomaa; Ibrahim, Medhat; Issa, Yousry M.; Magdy, Mina (2020). Investigation of painting technique of Coptic icon by integrated analytical methods: imaging, spectroscopic and chemometric methods. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 29(), 102085–. doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2019.102085

Lavine, Barry; Almirall, Jose; Muehlethaler, Cyril; Neumann, Cedric; Workman, Jerome (2020). Criteria for comparing infrared spectra â“ A review of the forensic and analytical chemistry literature. Forensic Chemistry, 18(), 100224–. doi:10.1016/j.forc.2020.100224

P. Buzzini, G. Massonnet, “A market study of green spray paints by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy” , Sci. Justice., vol 44(3) 123–131, 2004. http//doi:10.1016/s1355-0306(04)71704-9

C. Muehlethaler, G. Massonnet, P. Esseiva, “The application of chemometrics on Infrared and Raman spectra as a tool for the forensic analysis of paints”. Forensic Sci. Int, vol 209(1-3) ,173–182, 2011. http//doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.01.025

L. Danny, M. Cyril, E. Pierre, M. Geneviève, “Combining spectroscopic data in the forensic analysis of paint: Application of a multiblock technique as chemometric tool”. . Forensic Sci. Int , vol 263, 39–47, 2016. http//doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.03.049`

Y. Nishiwaki, S. Watanabe, O. Shimoda, Y. Saito, T. Nakanishi, Y. Terada, T. Ninomiya, I. Nakai, “Trace Elemental Analysis of Titanium Dioxide Pigments and Automotive White Paint Fragments for Forensic Examination Using High-Energy Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry”. Forensic Sci. Int , vol 54(3), 564–570, 2009. http//doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2009.01005.x

Additional Files