Cultural Variations in the Glass Ceiling Effect: A Review

  • Ragitha Radhakrishnan Dr MGR-Janaki College of Arts & Science for Women, Chennai
Keywords: Glass Ceiling effect, Gendered Hiring Protocols, Employment and Organisational Processes

Abstract

Gender Disparity is a universal phenomenon. The effect is more evident in an organisational setup. Two common forms of gender disparity are sticky floor effect and glass ceiling effect. Glass ceiling effect refers to the barriers that prevent women from progressing to the higher positions in the organisations. It can lead to differences in pay and may prevent women from climbing up the career ladder. The barriers may be psychological, social or organisational. The paper discusses the presence of glass ceiling across different cultures and its implications.

References

Abidin, Z. Z., Rashid, A. A. A., Jusoff, K., (2009). The ‘Glass Ceiling’ phenomenon for Malaysian women accountants. Asian Culture and History, 1(1), 38-44.

Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: a theory of gendered organizations. Gender and Society, 4(2), 139-158.

Al- Manasra, E.A. (2013). What are the "Glass Ceiling" barriers effects on women career progress in Jordan? International Journal of Business & Management, 8(6), 40-46.

Amuedo-Dorantes, C. and De la Rica, S. (2005). The impact of gender segregation on male-female wage differentials: evidence from matched employer-employee data for Spain. IZA Discussion Papers, No. 1742.

Baxter, J., & Wright, E. O. (2000). The glass ceiling hypothesis: a comparative study of the United States, Sweden, and Australia. Gender & Society, 14(2), 275-294.

Bell, M.P., McLaughlin, M.E., & Sequeira, J.M. (2002). Discrimination, harassment and the glass ceiling: women executives as change agents. Journal of Business Ethics, 37, 65-76.

Bimba, F. & Kaliyamoorthy, S. (2015). Barriers of glass ceiling on women employees in IT sector. Jnanavardhini - Online Multi Disciplinary Research Journal, 58-64.

Bombuwela, P. M., & Chamaru, A. (2013). Effects of glass ceiling on women career development in private sector organizations – case of Sri Lanka. Journal of Competitiveness, 5(2), 3-19.

Cansu, A. (2013). The glass ceiling: structural, cultural and organizational career barriers for French and Turkish women executives. Le 24ème congrès de l’AGRH 2013, Paris, France.

Cordano, M., Scherer, R. F., & Owen, C. L. (1994). Attitudes toward women as managers: sex versus culture. Women in Management Review, 17(2), 51-60.

DeArmond, S., Mary, T., Peter, Y. C., Autumn, K., & Emily, S. (2006). Age and gender stereotypes: new challenges in a changing workplace and workforce. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(9), 2184–2214.

Gender Gap Report. (2011). World Economic Forum, page 9 Global Gender Gap Report. (2013). World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014.

Haslam, S. A., & Ryan, M. K. (2008). The road to the glass cliff: differences in the perceived suitability of men and women for leadership positions in succeeding and failing organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(5), 530-546.

Insch, G. S., McIntyre, N., & Napier, N. K. (2008). The expatriate glass ceiling: the second layer of glass. Journal of Business Ethics, 8, 19-28 Doi 10.1007/s10551-007-9649-0.

Jabbar, A., & Imran, A. (2013). Perception of glass ceiling in the educational institution: An evidence from Pakistan. World Applied Sciences Journal, 23(5), 628-634.

Khuong, M. N. & Chi, N. T. (2017). Effects of the corporate glass ceiling factors on female employees organizational commitment: an empirical of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Journal of Advanced Management Science, 5(4), 255-263.

Koshal, M., Gupta, A. K., & Koshal, R. (1998). Women in management: A Malaysian perspective. Women in Management Review, 13(1), 11-18.

Linehan, M & Scullion, H. (2001). Challenges for female international managers: evidence from Europe. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(3), 215-228.

Merrell, A. J., & James, E. H. (2001). Gender and diversity in organisations: past, present and future directions. Sex Roles, 45(5/6), 243-251.

Nath, D. (2000). Gently shattering the glass ceiling: Experiences of Indian women managers. Women in Management Review, 15(1), 44-55.

Nick, F. (1999). Another ‘Glass Ceiling’?: The experiences of women professionals and managers on international assignments. Gender, Work and Organization, 6(2), 79–90.

Purcell, D., MacArthur, K. R., & Samblanet, S. (2010). Gender and the glass ceiling at work. Sociology Compass, 4(9), 705-717.

Sabir, M., & Aftab, S. (2007). Dynamism in the gender wage gap: evidence from Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review, 46(4), 865–882.

Sever, H., (2016). The comparison of glass ceiling perception of employees working in public and private enterprises. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 6, 577-588. Tran, T.T.T. (2014). Identifying the existence of the glass ceiling and examining the impact on the participation of female executives in the Vietnamese banking sector. An unpublished thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business, Unitec Institute of Technology.

Wirth, L. (2000). Breaking through the glass ceiling: women in management. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office Bureau International du Travail.
Published
2019-01-01