Exploring the Role of Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) in Reading Instruction: A Classroom-based Study with Engineering Students

  • Remya Rebecca Prakash English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad, India
  • Abjy Kurian National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirapalli, India
Keywords: Oral REading Fluency, Reading comprehension, ESL learners


Teaching reading is a complicated task as reading entails the simultaneous interaction of various component processes. Learning to read fluently is a crucial part of reading acquisition. Despite research conducted in L1 contexts regarding reading fluency, this area has been relatively unexplored in L2 contexts. In reading fluency research, Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) is an important construct which has been closely associated with the reading comprehension of young learners in L1 contexts. This paper aims to investigate the nature of the relationship between ORF and reading comprehension in ESL learners. If ORF proves to be significantly related to reading comprehension, it would be a valuable addition to reading instruction for ESL learners.


Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing reading. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Argyle, S. (1989). Miscue analysis for classroom use. Reading Horizons. Winter, 93-102.

Carver, R. P. (1997). Reading for one second, one minute, or one year from the perspective of rauding theory. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1, 3–43.

Gibson, E. J. (1965). Learning to read. In H. Singer & R. B. Ruddell (Eds.) Theoretical models and processes of reading, 252- 259. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.

Grabe, W. (2009). Reading in a second language: moving from theory to practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hasbrouck, J. E., & Tindal, G. (1992). Curriculum-based oral reading fluency norms for students in grades 2 through 5. Teaching Exceptional Children, 24(3), 41-44.

Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: what, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702-714.

Kuhn, M., & Stahl, S. (2003). Fluency: A Review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of Educational Psychology, 3-21.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (1994). The Postmethod Condition: (E) merging Strategies for Second/Foreign Language Teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 28(1), 27-48.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

Norris, A. (2012). Ctrl-Z. Retrieved from https:// anorrissbooks.wordpress.com/ books-by-andrew-norriss/ctrl-z-by-andrew-norriss/

Norris, A. (2012). The Touchstone. Retrieved from https:// anorrissbooks.wordpress.combooks-by-andrew-norriss/the-touchstone-by-andrew-norriss/

Perfetti, C. A. (1999). Comprehending written language: A blueprint of the reader. The Neurocognition of Language, 167-208. doi:10.1093/ acprof:oso/9780198507932.003.0006

Rasinski, T. V. (2004). Assessing reading fluency. Retrieved July 9, 2016, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED483166.pdf

Rasinski, T., Rikli, A., & Johnston, S. (2009). Reading fluency: more than automaticity? More than a concern for the primary grades? Literacy Research and Instruction, 48(4), 350-361.

Weir, C., Hawkey, R., Green, A., Unaldi, A., & Devi, S. (2009). The relationship between the academic reading construct as measured by IELTS and the reading experiences of students in their first year of study at a British university. International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Research Reports 2009, 9, 97.