Illegal Migration and Strategic Challenges: A Case Study of Undocumented Migration from Bangladesh to India

  • M Mayilvaganan National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, India
Keywords: Illegal Migration, Undocumented Migration, Northeast India and Assam, Bangladesh

Abstract

Generally people move either legally or illegally due to socioeconomic and environmental reasons like poverty, unemployment and climate change or in search of better opportunities like for work and education, apart from for the reasons of reunification with family members, or the fear of persecution by other ethnic and political groups. In India as per the census 2001 data the total number of migrants is 314 million. Out of these, migrants from Bangladesh are around 10-20 million, who are mostly undocumented and crossed the border illegally. Though the migration brings in positive contribution, but the illegal ones pose serious challenges to the receiving State. The paper focuses on illegal immigration from Bangladesh to India and its implications.

References

Assam Population Census Data 2011. (2011). Retrieved from https://www.census2011.co.in/census/state/assam.html

Das, J., & Talukdar, D. (2016). Socio-economic and political consequence of illegal migration into Assam from Bangladesh. Journal of Tourism & Hospitality, 5(2). Retrieved from https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/socioeconomic-and-political-consequence-of-illegal-migration-into-assamfrom-bangladesh-2167-0269-1000202.php?aid=69610&view=mobile

Das, P. (2016). Illegal migration from Bangladesh: deportation, border fences and work permits. IDSA Monograph Series, 56, 22. Retrieved from at https://idsa.in/system/files/monograph/monograph56.pdf Economic Times. (2016, June). Madrasas along Bangladesh border breeding ground of anti-national activities: Dilip Ghosh. Economic Times. Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/ news/politics-and-nation/madrasas-along-bangladesh-border-breeding-ground-of-anti-national-activities-dilip-ghosh/ articleshow/ 52599049.cms

Etzold, B., & Mallick, B. (2015). International migration from Bangladesh. Retrieved from http:// www.bpb.de/ gesellschaft/ migration/ laenderprofile/216104/international-migration-from-bangladesh Financial Express. (2018, January). In-brief: What is Assam‟s National Register of Citizens updation and how it will impact illegal immigrants. Financial Express. Retrieved from https:// www.financialexpress.com/india-news/explained-in-brief-what-is-assams-national-register-of-citizens-updation-and-how-it-will-impact-illegal-immigrants/997223/

Gohain, R., Handique, P., & Borpuzari, A. (2013). Post-1971 illegal immigration from Bangladesh: A demographic changed scenario of Assam. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 3(3), 3. Retrieved from http://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0313/ijsrp-p1573.pdf

Hazarika, S. (2002). Illegal migration from Bangladesh: problem and long term perspective. Dialogue, A Journal of Astha Bharati, New Delhi, 3(3), 23-32.

Hazarika, S. (2014, May). Complexity and conflict in Assam's 'Bodoland'. Al Jazeera. Retrieved from https:// www.aljazeera.com/ indepth/

opinion/2014/05/complexity-conflict-assam-bodola-20145865624188 7 03.html

India Today. (2017, June). Prostitution corridor on Bangladesh border: how human traffickers buy land and smuggle women. India Today. Retrieved from https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/human-traffickers-fake-documents-india-bangladesh-border-984411-2017-06-23

International Organization for Migration. (2010). The future of migration: building capacities for change. World Migration Report. Retrieved from https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/wmr_2010_english.pdf Key Migration Terms. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.iom.int/key-migration-terms

Kumar, A. (2005). Bangladesh: fighting over fencing. South Asia Analysis Group(SAAG), 1330. Retrieved from http://www.saag.org/ common/ uploaded_files/paper1330.html.

Mander, H. (2012, August). Assam‟s tragedy. The Hindu. Retrieved from http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/columns/Harsh_Mander/assams-tragedy/article3820732.ece

Ministry of Home Affairs. (2018). Status of fencing work along Indo-Bangladesh Border. Press Information Bureau.Government of India.Retrieved from http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=176315

Nanjappa, V. (2012). ISI, DGFI plan to bleed India using Bangladeshi migrants. rediff.com. Retrieved from http://www.rediff.com/ news/ slide-show/slide-show-1-how-bangladeshi-migrants-crawl-into-indian-cities/20120907.htm

Rajeshwar, T.V. (1996, February). Migration or invasion. The Hindustan Times.

Saikia, A. A. (2017). Illegal Bangladeshi immigration into Assam: conflict in political context. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 22(9), 3. Retrieved from http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jhss/ papers/ Vol.%2022%20Issue9/Version-4/A2209040106.pdf

Sharma, R., & Bhushan, A. (2014). Illegal immigration of Bangladeshis into India: national security challenges. CS 04 session of 23rd World Congress of IPSA, 7. Canada.

Singh, P. (2002). Management of India's north-eastern borders. Dialogue, 3(3), 67.

The Hindu. (2001, March). Census shows drop in Assam population. The Hindu. Retrieved from http:// www.thehindu.com/ 2001/ 03/ 30/ stories/1430203e.htm

The Hindu. (2015, August). India, Bangladesh swap border enclaves, settle old dispute. The Hindu. Retrieved from http:// www.thehindu.com/ news/national/india-bangladesh-swap-border-enclaves-settle-old-dispute/article7488497.ece

The Hindustan Times. (2017, July). Cattle smuggled from India harming economy of Bangladesh: Border guards. The Hindustan Times. Retrieved from https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/ cattle-smuggled-from-india-harming-economy-of-bangladesh-border-guards/story-s9xgam0281cBJtsrYUuJVP.html

Writ Petition (Civil) No. 125 of 1998, All Indian Lawyers Forum for Civil Liberties (AILFCL) & Another Vs. Union of India and Others, Counter Affidavit on behalf of the Respondent No. 3. In B. B. Kumāra, (2006). Illegal migration from Bangladesh. Concept Publishing Company.

Published
2019-10-01