China in India’s Neighbourhood: Connectivity, Political Messaging and Military Diplomacy
This essay examines three approaches in Chinese foreign and security policies at work in India‟s neighbourhood with the help of three brief case studies involving Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. The first looks at how China has engaged with Nepal through connectivity projects as part of the Belt and Road Initiative. The second case study looks at Chinese attention to Bhutan especially in the context of the Doklam conflict with Indian in mid-2017. The third and final case study describes Beijing‟s military diplomacy with Sri Lanka. These case studies provide an overview of the range of Chinese activities, approaches and interests in South Asia that New Delhi often has trouble appreciating or accepting. This article argues that accepting the reality of these Chinese approaches and understanding them are essential for India to rethink and reinvigorate its own neighbourhood policy.
Cheng X. (2018, January 22). India on wrong path to regional hegemony. Global Times. Retrieved from http:// www.globaltimes.cn/ content/ 1086011.shtml
China-Sri Lanka Joint Center for Research and Education, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka. (n.d.). Establishment of China Sri Lanka Joint Center for Education and Research (CSL-CER). Retrieved fromhttp://www.ruh.ac.lk/Uni/cslcer/mainmenu.php?menu=Events&evntid=1.
Global Times. (2017, December 27). India haunted by containment delusion. Global Times. Retrieved from http:// www.globaltimes.cn/ content/ 1082384.shtml.
Global Times. (2017, July 5). China can rethink stance on Sikkim, Bhutan. Global Times. Retrieved from http:// www.globaltimes.cn/ content/ 1055088.shtml.
Huang, D. (2018, January 15). India‟s sense of superiority miffs neighbors. Global Times. Retrieved from http://www.globaltimes.cn/ content/ 1084905.shtml.
Jacob, J. T. (2019, February 1). Political Crisis in Sri Lanka: China and the Maritime Dimension. National Maritime Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.maritimeindia.org/View%20Profile/636845977769000724.pdf.
Li X. (2018, October 11). New railway set to fuel Tibet‟s economy, trade with India and Nepal: experts. Global Times. Retrieved from http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1122636.shtml.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Nepal. (2018, September 12). Inaugural Address by Rt. Hon. Prime Minister Mr. K. P. Sharma Oli at International Conference on Belt and Road Initiative: Opportunities and Implications for Nepal and the Region. Government of Nepal. Retrieved from https://mofa.gov.np/inaugural-address-by-rt-hon-prime-minister-mr-k-p-sharma-oli-at-international-conference-on-belt-and-road-initiative-opportunities-and-implications-for-nepal-and-the-region/.
People's Daily Online. (2017, August 8). India must not flirt with disaster. People's Daily Online. Retrieved from http:// en.people.cn/ n3/ 2017/0808/c90780-9252655.html.
Roy, S. (2018, July 24). China Minister arrives in Bhutan on first top-level visit after Doklam. The Indian Express. Retrieved from https://indianexpress.com/article/india/china-minister-arrives-in-bhutan-on-first-top-level-visit-after-doklam-5272450/Rutnam, E. (2018, July 23). China to boost military ties with Sri Lanka and gift frigate. Colombo Gazette. Retrieved from https:// colombogazette.com/2018/07/23/china-to-boost-military-ties-with-sri-lanka-and-gift-frigate/.
Sina Military. (2018, April 18). Yin Jun: Yindu 50 sou junjian zheng 24 xiaoshi jianshi Zhongguo haijun huhang biandui (Indian Military: 50 Indian warships monitor Chinese naval escort formations 24 hours a day). Retrieved from http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/china/2018-04-18/doc-ifzihnep4320245.shtml.
Sina Military. (2018, June 14). Yindu Yang guojia choujian Zhongguo huweijian fazhan shi zhidui xinghao quan shuliang da (Indian Ocean country‟s purchases of Chinese frigates mirrors their development history). Retrieved from http:// mil.news.sina.com.cn/ jssd/2018-06-14/doc-ihcwpcmq6500914.shtml.
South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. (n.d). Brief Introduction. Retrieved from http:// english.scsio.cas.cn/ au/bi/.
Stone, C. (2017, August 10). India is playing with fire, and it could get burned. People‟s Daily Online. Retrieved from http:// en.people.cn/ n3/2017/0810/c90000-9253612.html.
Thapa, K. (2017). @KTnepal, Twitter, 13 November 2017, https:// twitter.com/KTnepal/status/930055093423972352.
The Print. (2018, July 15). Need to take an extra step & maintain new equilibrium with China: Ex-NSA Shivshankar Menon. The Print. Retrieved from https://theprint.in/walk-the-talk/need-to-take-an-extra-step-maintain-new-equilibrium-with-china-menon/83307/. Xu, H.. (2018, July 24). China respects Bhutan to conduct independent, peaceful diplomatic policies: visiting vice foreign minister. Global Times. Retrieved from http:// www.globaltimes.cn/ content/ 1112237.shtml.
Wang Y. (2018, September 9). Zhong-Ni you you tian san dao liangli fengjing (Sino-Nepalese friendship adds three more beautiful scenes). Zhongguo Xizang Wang (Tibet.cn). Retrieved from http:// www.tibet.cn/cn/index/syyc/201809/t20180909_6245295.html.
Xinhua a. (2018, January 21). China donates solar power generation system to Nepal. Retrieved from http:// www.xinhuanet.com/ english/2018-01/21/c_136913167.htm
Xinhua b. (2018, January 21). Former deputy PM sees China‟s economic development as role model for Nepal. Retrieved from http:// www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-01/21/c_136913200.htm
Xinhua c. (2018, January 29). Increasing number of vehicle poses threat to Bhutan‟s pristine environment. Retrieved from http:// www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-01/29/c_136934378.htm
Xinhua. (2018, January 31). Nepali airline‟s team to take delivery of two more Chinese-made planes. Retrieved from http:// www. xinhuanet.com/ english/2018-01/31/c_136938579.htm
Xinhua. (2018, February 2). Chinese social media app WeChat gaining popularity in Bhutan. Retrieved from http:// www.xinhuanet.com/ english/2017-04/17/c_136216105.htm.
Xinhua. (2018, March 10). Bhutan awarded world‟s Sustainable Destinations‟ Earth Award. Retrieved from http:// www.xinhuanet.com/ english/2018-03/10/c_137029914.htm
Xinhua. (2017, April 17). Bangladeshi PM‟s three-day Bhutan visit to focus on six deals. Retrieved from http:// www.xinhuanet.com/ english/ 2017-04/17/c_136216105.htm.
Xinhua. (2018, June 4). Bhutan to observe “World Environment Day” with traffic free day. Retrieved from http:// www.xinhuanet.com/ english/2018-06/04/c_137229575.htm
Xinhua. (2018, September 29). China invests in new center in Sri Lanka to strengthen collaboration on marine sciences. Retrieved from http:// www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-09/29/c_137501493.htm.
Yuan J. (2018, January 16). Lijing san nian ban Zhong-Ni kua jing hulianwang guanglan zhengshi kaitong (After three and a half years, China-Nepal cross-border Internet cable is officially opened). Renmin Ribao (People‟s Daily). Retrieved from http:// ydyl.people.com.cn/ n1/2018/0115/c411946-29764122.html.
Yuan Z. & Li S. (2018, September 10). Zhongguo he Nibo‟erqian“lishi ting”gangkouxieyi. Yin mei hen suan (China and Nepal sign “historic” port agreement. Indian media is very displeased). Huanqiu Wang: Junshi (Global Times: Military). Retrieved from http:// mil. huanqiu.com/world/2018-09/12973419.html?agt=15422.
Zhang, H. (2018, March 12). Indian strategy focusing on South Asian diplomacy likely to fail: analyst. Global Times. Retrieved from http:// www.globaltimes.cn/ content/1092920.shtml.
Zheng, S. (2017, December 14). Nepal‟s Government-in-waiting To Revive Scrapped Chinese Dam Project. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/ article/2124321/nepals-government-waiting-revive-scrapped-chinese-dam.
Zhongguo Xizang Xinwen Wang (China Tibet News). (2018, September 8). Di si jie Zhongguo Xizang lüyou wenhua guoji bolanhui long chong kaimu (The 4th China Tibet Tourism Culture International Expo has a grand inauguration). Retrieved from http:// www.xzxw.com/ zw/ 201809/t20180908_2359362.html.
Zhongguo Xizang Xinwen Wang (China Tibet News). (2018, September 11). Wu Yingjie deng lingdao fenbie huijian Nibo‟er Zhongyiyuan yizhang, Mengguguo Wulanbatuo shi yizhang ji waiguo zhu Hua shijie tuan (Wu Yingjie and other leaders meet individually with the speaker of the Nepalese House of Representatives, the Speaker of the Ulaanbaatar City of Mongolia and diplomatic envoys of variouscountries to China). Retrieved from http:// www.xzxw.com/ zw/ zwyw/201809/t20180911_2363891.html.
Zhongguo Kexueyuan Nanhai Haiyang Yanjiusuo (South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences). (n.d.). Jigoujieshao (Introduction of the Organization). Retrieved from http:// www.scsio.cas.cn/gkjj/jgjj/
Copyright (c) 2019 Artha - Journal of Social Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.