Demographic Scenario of India: Opportunities and Challenges


  • Pramod Pandurangrao Lonarkar School of Social Sciences, S.R.T.M. University, Nanded, Maharashtra, India.



Demographic Transition, Demographic Dividend, Age Composition, Aging, Dependecny Ratio, Literacy, Fertility, Mortality


India, the second most populous country in the world has undergone several demographic changes. The current age composition shows high quantum of young population. This is an opportunity for the country if appropriate policy measures are taken. The objective of this paper is to focus on the timely trend of demographic transition to highlight the threshold time limit of opportunity and challenges ahead. A long time series data of around 150 year has been analyzed to derive conclusions and to create supportive background for policy formulation. The study found that India is in the third stage of demographic transition which will last during 2065 to 2070, where India‟s population will be at its peak. But the threshold limit of the increasing working age population will be 2030, with around 64% working age people and lowest dependency ratio. This paper shows that number of old female dependents will increase in the transition process. This paper also indicates the need for policy formulation to address the short term and long term opportunities and challenges.

Author Biography

Pramod Pandurangrao Lonarkar, School of Social Sciences, S.R.T.M. University, Nanded, Maharashtra, India.

School of Social Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, Maharashtra, India.


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