Who Cares? Exploring the Impact of the Isolation Economy and the Care-Giving Crisis on Working Women in South Africa


  • Kathryn Pillay University of KwaZulu-Natal




isolation economy, care labour, covid-19, global south, women


The Covid-19 pandemic reconstituted daily life in unprecedented ways. This reconstitution has amplified pre-existing inequalities in societies both globally and in already highly unequal societies like South Africa.  Organisations for example have had to redesign and rethink how they operate, with most resorting to closure of offices and buildings and shifting to emergency remote working. For working women, due to the gendered nature of care work, this has also meant adopting the roles of caregiver and home school teacher, while still fulfilling the majority of household labour. The pandemic has thus spearheaded society into what has been termed the Isolation Economy. This transformation has meant that many of the collaborative, shared, face to face experiences we engaged in pre-Covid with regard to work, social and everyday activities such as shopping and entertainment is now being experienced in isolation, and some of these activities, like working from home or remote work, are likely to be experienced in this way permanently. This conceptual article aims to examine the consequences of the isolation economy for working women in South Africa, who are already bedevilled by an unequal economy and in the midst of a longstanding care-giving crisis.


Abel, E. K., and Nelson, M. K. (1990). Circles of care: An introductory essay. In E. K. Mallett and M. K. Nelson (Eds.), Circles of care: Work and identity in women’s lives (pp. 4-34). New York: University of New York Press.

Adams-Prassl, A., Boneva, T., Golin, M. and Rauh, C. (2020). Inequality in the impact of the coronavirus shock: Evidence from real time surveys. Journal of Public Economics. 189. doi: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104245 -

Ahmed, F., Ahmed, N.E., Pissarides, C. and Stiglitz, J. (2020). Why inequality could spread COVID-19. The Lancet Public Health. 5. doi: 10.1016/j.lanepe.2022.100508

Badgett, M.V., 1999. Assigning care: Gender norms and economic outcomes. Int'l Lab. Rev., 138. doi: 10.1111/j.1564-913X.1999.tb00390.x

Barbieri, B., Balia, S., Sulis, I., Cois, E., Cabras, C., Atzara, S. and De Simone, S. (2021). Don’t call it smart: Working from home during the pandemic crisis. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.741585

Berkman, L.F., and Syme, S.L. (1979). Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: a nine-year follow-up study of Alameda County residents. American journal of Epidemiology. 109, 186-204.

Blunt, A., and Dowling, R. (2006). Home. Oxon: Routledge.

Bromwich, R.J., O’Reilly, A. and Fiona, J.G. (2021). Mothers in the legal profession doubling up on the double shift during the COVID-19 pandemic: Never waste a crisis. In A. O’ Reilly and F.J. Green (Eds.) Mothers, mothering, and COVID-19: Dispatches from the pandemic (pp.131-140). Demeter Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814715-3.00008-4

Brooks, S.K., Webster, R.K., Smith, L.E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N. and Rubin, G.J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395, 912-920. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8

Business Tech. (2022, May 23). It’s not worth driving into the office anymore in South Africa, workers say. Available at: https://businesstech.co.za/news/technology/588966/its-not-worth-driving-into-the-office-anymore-in-south-africa-workers-say/ (Accessed May 30, 2022).

Buthelezi, L. (2022, January 27). Life’s too short: Why SA workers are joining the global trend of quitting their jobs. Available at: https://www.news24.com/fin24/economy/lifes-too-short-why-sa-workers-are-joining-the-global-trend-of-quitting-their-jobs-20220127 (Accessed May 30, 2022).

Bryant, S. (2000). At home on the electronic frontier: work, gender and the information highway. New Technology, Work and Employment. 15, 19-33.

Cacioppo, J.T., and Cacioppo, S. (2014). Social relationships and health: The toxic effects of perceived social isolation. Social and personality psychology compass. 8, 58-72.

Carlson, J. (2013). Sweden's parental leave insurance: a policy analysis of strategies to increase gender equality. J. Soc. & Soc. Welfare. 40, 63-76.

Carnevale, J.B., and Hatak, I. (2020). Employee adjustment and well-being in the era of COVID-19: Implications for human resource management. Journal of Business Research. 116, 183-187.

Cerrato, J., and Cifre, E. (2018). Gender inequality in household chores and work-family conflict. Frontiers in psychology. 9. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01330

Chotiner, I. (2020). The interwoven threads of inequality and health. The New Yorker, 14. Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/news/q-and-a/the-coronavirus-and-the-interwoven-threads-of-inequality-and-health (Accessed May 1, 2022).

Clair, R., Gordon, M., Kroon, M. and Reilly, C. (2021). The effects of social isolation on well-being and life satisfaction during pandemic. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 8, 1-6.

Clark, S.C. (2001). Work cultures and work/family balance. Journal of Vocational behavior. 58, 348-365.

Clark, M.A., Robertson, M.M. and Young, S. (2019). “I feel your pain”: A critical review of organizational research on empathy. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 40, 166-192.

Clarno, A. (2017). Neoliberal Apartheid: Palestine/Israel and South Africa after 1994. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Cooper, C.D., and Kurland, N.B. (2002). Telecommuting, professional isolation, and employee development in public and private organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior. 23, 511-532.

Couch, D.L., O'Sullivan, B. and Malatzky, C. (2021). What COVID‐19 could mean for the future of “work from home”: The provocations of three women in the academy. Gender, Work & Organization. 28, 266-275.

Courtin, E., and Knapp, M. (2017). Social isolation, loneliness and health in old age: a scoping review. Health & Social Care in the Community. 25, 799-812.

Craig, L. (2020). Coronavirus, domestic labour and care: Gendered roles locked down. Journal of Sociology. 56, 684-692.

Crosina, E. (2022). Disrupted and Stronger: Looking In and Looking Out. MIT Sloan Management Review. Available at: https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/disrupted-and-stronger-looking-in-and-looking-out/ (Accessed February 11, 2021).

De Simone, S. (2014). Conceptualizing wellbeing in the workplace. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 5, 118-122.

Delanoeije, J., and Verbruggen, M. (2019). The use of work-home practices and work-home conflict: Examining the role of volition and perceived pressure in a multi-method study. Frontiers in Psychology. 10. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02362

Deloitte South Africa. (2021). Pandemic takes a heavy toll on working women; the majority are significantly less optimistic about their career prospects. Deloitte Africa. Available at: https://www2.deloitte.com/za/en/pages/about-deloitte/press-releases/women-at-work-survey.html (Accessed June 1, 2022).

Demerouti, E., and Bakker, A.B. (2011). The job demands-resources model: Challenges for future research. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. 37, 1-9.

Dikkers, J.S., Geurts, S.A., Dulk, L.D., Peper, B., Taris, T.W. and Kompier, M.A. (2007). Dimensions of work–home culture and their relations with the use of work–home arrangements and work–home interaction. Work & Stress. 21, 155-172.

Donthu, N., and Gustafsson, A. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on business and research. Journal of Business Research. 117, 284-289.

Dziak, E., Janzen, B.L. and Muhajarine, N. (2010). Inequalities in the psychological well-being of employed, single and partnered mothers: the role of psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict. International Journal for Equity in Health. 9, 1-8.

England, P., and Folbre, N. (1999). The cost of caring. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 561, 39-51.

Ertel, K.A., Glymour, M.M. and Berkman, L.F. (2008). Effects of social integration on preserving memory function in a nationally representative US elderly population. American Journal of Public Health. 98, 1215-1220.

Feder-Stanford, S. (2020). Pandemic work/life balance burden falls more on women. Futurity. Available at: https://www.futurity.org/work-life-balance-covid-19-pandemic-2354782/ (Accessed September 2, 2022).

Finch, J., and Groves, D. (1983). A Labour of love: Women, work and caring. Journal of Social Policy. 13, 370-371.

Fisher, J., Languilaire, J.C., Lawthom, R., Nieuwenhuis, R., Petts, R.J., Runswick-Cole, K. and Yerkes, M.A. (2020). Community, work, and family in times of COVID-19. Community, Work & Family. 23, 247-252.

Folbre, N. (2014). The care economy in Africa: Subsistence production and unpaid care. Journal of African Economies. 23, 128-156.

Francis, D., Valodia, I. and Webster, E. (2020). Politics, Policy, and Inequality in South Africa Under COVID-19. Agrarian South: Journal of Political Economy, 9, 342–355. doi: 10.1177/2277976020970036

Gage-Bouchard, E.A. (2017). Social support, flexible resources, and health care navigation. Social Science & Medicine. 190, 111-118.

García, G.M, and Calvo, J.C.A. (2021). The threat of COVID‐19 and its influence on nursing staff burnout. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 77, 832-844.

Gely, R., and Bierman, L. (2007). Social isolation and American workers: Employee blogging and legal reform. Harv. JL & Tech. 20, 287-331.

Gewin, V. (2021). Pandemic burnout is rampant in academia. Nature. 591, 489-492.

Gilbert, S. (2019).The Importance of Community and Mental HealthNAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness. Available at: https://nami.org/Blogs/NAMI-Blog/November-2019/The-Importance-of-Community-and-Mental-Health (Accessed May 20, 2022).

Gloor, J., Okimoto, T., and King, E., 2021. “Maybe Baby?” The Employment Risk of Potential Parenthood. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 10.1111/jasp.12799.

Gómez, S.M., Mendoza, O.E.O., Ramírez, J. and Olivas-Luján, M.R. (2020). Stress and myths related to the COVID-19 pandemic’s effects on remote work. Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management. 18, 401–420.

Gove, W.R., and Tudor, J.F. (1973). Adult sex roles and mental illness. American Journal of Sociology. 78, 812-835.

Grant, C.A., Wallace, L.M., and Spurgeon, P.C. (2013). An exploration of the psychological factors affecting remote e‐worker's job effectiveness, well‐being and work‐life balance. Employee Relations. 35, 527-546.

Guterres, A. (2020). We are all in this Together: Human Rights and COVID-19 Response and Recovery. United Nations. Available at: https://www.un.org/en/un-coronavirus-communications-team/we-are-all-together-human-rights-and-covid-19-response-and (Accessed May 8, 2020).

Gwyther, M. (2020). When Working From Home Became Living At Work. Jericho Chambers. Available at: https://jerichochambers.com/when-working-from-home-became-living-at-work/ (Accessed April 12, 2020).

Harasemiw, O., Newall, N., Shooshtari, S., Mackenzie, C. and Menec, V. (2018). From social integration to social isolation: The relationship between social network types and perceived availability of social support in a national sample of older Canadians. Research on Aging. 40, 715-739.

Harter, J. (2022). U.S. Employee Engagement Drops for First Year in a Decade. Gallup. Available at: https://www.gallup.com/workplace/388481/employee-engagement-drops-first-year-decade.aspx (Accessed May 15, 2022).

Hartig, T., Kylin, C., and Johansson, G. (2007). The telework tradeoff: Stress mitigation vs. constrained restoration. Applied Psychology. 56, 231-253.

Haslam, C., Cruwys, T. and Haslam, S.A. (2014). The we's have it: Evidence for the distinctive benefits of group engagement in enhancing cognitive health in aging. Social Science & Medicine. 120, 57-66.

Hennessy, J. (2009). Morality and work–family conflict in the lives of poor and low-income women. The Sociological Quarterly. 50, 557-580.

Herman, C., Lewis, S., and Humbert, A.L. (2013). Women scientists and engineers in European companies: Putting motherhood under the microscope. Gender, Work & Organization. 20, 467-478.

Himmelweit, S. (1995). The discovery of “unpaid work”: the social consequences of the expansion of “work”. Feminist Economics, 1, 1-19.

Ho, K.H.M., Chiang, V.C.L., Leung, D., and Cheung, D.S.K. (2019). A feminist phenomenology on the emotional labor and morality of live-in migrant care workers caring for older people in the community. BMC Geriatrics. 19, doi: 10.1186/s12877-019-1352-3

Hochschild, A.R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Hochschild, A. (1989). The Second Shift. New York: Avon Books.

Huang, Y., and Zhao, N. (2020). Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: a web-based cross-sectional survey. Psychiatry Res. 288, doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112954

Ibrahim, R.Z., Ohtsuka, K. and Halik, M.H. (2009, July 9-11). An overview of work family conflict and employee wellbeing: role of support and family friendly policy [Paper presentation]. 2009 Southeast Asia Psychology Conference, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia.

International Labour Organization. (2018). Care Work and Care Jobs for the Future of Decent Work. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

International Labour Organization. (2020a). Rapid Diagnostics for Assessing the Country Level Impact of COVID-19 on the Economy and Labour Market. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

International Labour Organization. (2020b). Protecting Migrant Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Recommendations for Policy-Makers and Constituents. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

Islam, A. (2021). Two hours extra for working from home: Reporting on gender, space, and time from the Covid‐field of Delhi, India. Gender, Work & Organization. 28, 405-414.

Jasrotia, A., and Meena, J. (2021). Women, work and pandemic: An impact study of COVID‐19 lockdown on working women in India. Asian Social Work and Policy Review 15, 282-291.

Jahn, E.W., Thompson, C.A., and Kopelman, R.E. (2003). Rationale and construct validity evidence for a measure of perceived organizational family support (POFS): Because purported practices may not reflect reality. Community, Work & Family. 6, 123-140.

Jayachandran, S. (2015). The roots of gender inequality in developing countries. Economics. 7, 63-88.

Johns, T., and Gratton, L. (2013). The third wave of virtual work. Harvard Business Review. 91, 66-73.

Kang L., Li Y., Hu S., Chen M., Yang C., Yang B.X., Wang Y., Hu J., Lai J., Ma X., Chen J., Guan L., Wang G., Ma H., Liu Z. (2020). The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. 2020. The Lancet Psychiatry. 7, doi: doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30047-X

Kapoor, H., Ticku, A., Tagat, A. and Karandikar, S. (2021). Innovation in isolation? COVID-19 lockdown stringency and culture-innovation relationships. Frontiers in Psychology. 12, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.593359

Kim, A.W., Nyengerai, T. and Mendenhall, E. (2020). Evaluating the mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic: Perceived risk of COVID-19 infection and childhood trauma predict adult depressive symptoms in urban South Africa. Psychological Medicine. 52, 1587-1599. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017%2FS0033291720003414

Lee, J., and Cagle, J.G. (2018). Social exclusion factors influencing life satisfaction among older adults. Journal of Poverty and Social Justice. 26, 35-50.

Legal and General. (2020). UK ‘Isolation Economy’ snapshot: £12.9bn annual rise in core “at home spending” says Legal & General. Available at: https://group.legalandgeneral.com/en/newsroom/press-releases/uk-isolation-economy-snapshot-12-9bn-annual-rise-in-core-at-home-spending-says-legal-general (Accessed June 1, 2022).

Lewis, S., and Humbert, A.L. (2010). Discourse or reality? “Work‐life balance”, flexible working policies and the gendered organization. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal. 29, 239-254.

Liu, J., Zhu, B., Wu, J. and Mao, Y. (2019). Job satisfaction, work stress, and turnover intentions among rural health workers: a cross-sectional study in 11 western provinces of China. BMC Family Practice. 20, 1-11.

Lokot, M., and Bhatia, A. (2020). Unequal and invisible: A feminist political economy approach to valuing women's care labor in the COVID-19 response. Frontiers in Sociology, 5.doi: 10.3389/fsoc.2020.588279 .

Lowe, G. (2018). Creating healthy organizations: Taking action to improve employee well-being. Toronto: Rotman-Utp Publishing.

Lu, Y., Hu, X.M., Huang, X.L., Zhuang, X.D., Guo, P., Feng, L.F., Hu, W., Chen, L., Zou, H. and Hao, Y.T. (2017). The relationship between job satisfaction, work stress, work–family conflict, and turnover intention among physicians in Guangdong, China: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 7, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014894

Mann, S., and Holdsworth, L. (2003). The psychological impact of teleworking: stress, emotions and health. New Technology, Work and Employment. 18, 196-211.

Matli, W. (2020), The changing work landscape as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic: insights from remote workers life situations in South Africa. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. 40, 1237-1256. doi: 10.1108/IJSSP-08-2020-0386

McKie, A. (2020). Juggling childcare with academia: female experiences in lockdown. Times Higher Education. Available at: https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/juggling-childcare-academia-female-experiences-lockdown (Accessed May 11, 2022).

Michalski, C. A., Diemert, L. M., Helliwell, J. F., Goel, V., and Rosella, L. C. (2020). Relationship between sense of community belonging and self-rated health across life stages. SSM-Population Health. 12, doi: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100676

Mehta, K. (2020). Welcome to the isolation economy (Goodbye sharing economy). Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/kmehta/2020/03/23/welcome-to-the-isolation-economy-goodbye-sharing-economy/?sh=4592a5838d88 (Accessed March 14, 2022).

Mahomed, F. and Stein, M.A. (2017). De-stigmatising psychosocial disability in South Africa. Afr. Disability Rts. YB.5, 64-83.

Morganson, V.J., Major, D.A., Oborn, K.L., Verive, J.M. and Heelan, M.P. (2010). Comparing telework locations and traditional work arrangements: Differences in work‐life balance support, job satisfaction, and inclusion. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 25, 578-595.

Murove, M. F. (2012). Ubuntu. Diogenes. 59, 36-47.

O’Driscoll, M.P., Brough, P. and Kalliath, T.J. (2004). Work/family conflict, psychological well‐being, satisfaction and social support: A longitudinal study in New Zealand. Equal Opportunities International. 23, 6–56.

Osborne, S. (2021). A matter of principals. Independent Education, 51, 34-35.

Oxfam. (2020). Care in the Time of Coronavirus: Why care work needs to be at the centre of a feminist post-COVID-19 future. Available at: https://oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10546/621009/bp-care-crisis-time-for-global-reevaluation-care-250620-en.pdf (Accessed May 9, 2022).

Ozbay, F., Johnson, D.C., Dimoulas, E., Morgan III, C.A., Charney, D. and Southwick, S. (2007). Social support and resilience to stress: from neurobiology to clinical practice. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 4, 35-40.

Parker, I. (1999). Critical psychology: Critical links. Annual review of critical psychology. 1, 3-18.

Parry, B.R., and Gordon, E. (2021). The shadow pandemic: Inequitable gendered impacts of COVID‐19 in South Africa. Gender, Work & Organization, 28, 795-806.

Petts, R.J., Carlson, D.L. and Pepin, J.R. (2021). A gendered pandemic: Childcare, homeschooling, and parents' employment during COVID‐19. Gender, Work & Organization. 28, 515-534.


Power, K. (2020). The COVID‐19 pandemic has increased the care burden of women and families. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy. 16, 67–73. doi: 10.1080/15487733.2020.1776561

Ratele, K. (2018). Toward cultural (African) psychology: Links, challenges, and possibilities. In G. Jovanović, L. Allolio-Näcke, and C. Ratner (Eds.), The Challenges Of Cultural Psychology (pp. 250-268). London: Routledge.

Risman, B.J. 2004. Gender as a Social Structure. Gender & Society, Vol 18, 4, pp. 429-450.

Robinson, F. (2006). Beyond labour rights: The ethics of care and women's work in the global economy. International Feminist Journal of Politics. 8, 321-342.

Roy, R. (2021). Working from Home: Women in the Indian Tech-industry through the Pandemic. Journal of Comparative Literature and Aesthetics. 44, 56-67.

Ruberman, W., Weinblatt, E., Goldberg, J.D. and Chaudhary, B.S. (1984). Psychosocial influences on mortality after myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine. 311, 552-559.

Rudolph, C.W., Allan, B., Clark, M., Hertel, G., Hirschi, A., Kunze, F., Shockley, K., Shoss, M., Sonnentag, S. and Zacher, H. (2021). Pandemics: Implications for research and practice in industrial and organizational psychology. Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 14, 1-35.

Ruppel, C., Tworoger, L. and Tworoger, T. (2012). Telework: Identifying a personal dimension to work-related socio-technical theory. Advances in Business Research. 3, 12-24.

Sandberg, S and Thomas, R. (2020). Companies and Women Are at a Crossroads. Available at: https://www.wsj.com/articles/sheryl-sandberg-companies-and-women-are-at-a-crossroads-11601434004 (Accessed September 10, 2021).

Sayer, L.C., England, P., Bittman, M. and Bianchi, S.M. (2009). How long is the second (plus first) shift? Gender differences in paid, unpaid, and total work time in Australia and the United States. Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 40, 523-545.

Sen, A. (1990). Gender and cooperative conflicts. In: I. Tinker (Ed.), Persistent inequalities: Women and world development (pp. 123-149). New York: Oxford University Press.

Shamir, B. and Salomon, I. (1985). Work-at-home and the quality of working life. Academy of Management Review. 10,.455-464.

Sheather, J. and Slattery, D. (2021). The great resignation—how do we support and retain staff already stretched to their limit?. BMJ. 375. doi:10.1136/bmj.n2533

Shevlin, M., Nolan, E., Owczarek, M., McBride, O., Murphy, J., Gibson Miller, J., Hartman, T.K., Levita, L., Mason, L., Martinez, A.P. and McKay, R. (2020). COVID‐19‐related anxiety predicts somatic symptoms in the UK population. British Journal of Health Psychology. 25, 875-882.

Smith, D. (1974). Women's perspective as a radical critique of sociology. Sociological Inquiry. 44, 7-13.

Smith, B.J. and Lim, M.H. (2020). How the COVID-19 pandemic is focusing attention on loneliness and social isolation. Public Health Res Pract, 30, doi: 10.17061/phrp3022008

Spinuzzi, C. (2012). Working alone together: Coworking as emergent collaborative activity. Journal of business and technical communication. 26, 399-441.

Steffens, N.K., Cruwys, T., Haslam, C., Jetten, J. and Haslam, S.A. (2016). Social group memberships in retirement are associated with reduced risk of premature death: evidence from a longitudinal cohort study. BMJ Open. 6, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010164

Stiegler, N. and Bouchard, J.P. (2020). September. South Africa: Challenges and successes of the COVID-19 lockdown. Annales Médico-psychologiques, Revue Psychiatrique. 178, 695-698).

Sullivan, O., Gershuny, J. and Robinson, J.P. (2018). Stalled or uneven gender revolution? A long‐term processual framework for understanding why change is slow. Journal of Family Theory & Review. 10, 263-279.

Terry, D.J., Nielsen, M. and Perchard, L. (1993). Effects of work stress on psychological well‐being and job satisfaction: The stress‐buffering role of social support. Australian Journal of Psychology 45, 68-175.

Tang, W., Hu, T., Hu, B., Jin, C., Wang, G., Xie, C., Chen, S. and Xu, J. (2020). Prevalence and correlates of PTSD and depressive symptoms one month after the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in a sample of home-quarantined Chinese university students. Journal of affective disorders. 274, 1-7.

Torales, J., O’Higgins, M., Castaldelli-Maia, J.M. and Ventriglio, A. (2020). The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health. International journal of social psychiatry. 66, 317-320.

Tronto, J. (1993). Moral boundaries: A political argument for an ethic of care. New York & London: Routledge.

Tronto, J. (2013). Caring Democracy: Markets, Equality, and Justice. New York: New York University Press.

Tonkin, K., Malinen, S., Näswall, K. and Kuntz, J.C. (2018). Building employee resilience through wellbeing in organizations. Human Resource Development Quarterly. 29, 107-124.

Fisher, B., and Tronto, J. (1990.) Toward a feminist theory of caring. In E.K. Abel and M.K. Nelson (Eds.), Circles of care: Work and identity in women’s lives (pp. 35-62). New York: SUNY Press.

Umberson, D., and Karas Montez, J. (2010). Social relationships and health: A flashpoint for health policy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51, S54-S66.

University of Johannesburg and Human Sciences Research Council. (2020). UJ Coronavirus Impact Survey Summary Findings - April 2020. Available at: https://www.uj.ac.za/newandevents/Documents/UJ%20HSRC%20summary%20report%20v1.pdf (Accessed March 05, 2021).

UN Women. (2020). World survey on the role of women in development 2019. New York: United Nations

Usher, K., Bhullar, N., and Jackson, D. (2020). Life in the pandemic: social isolation and mental health. J. Clin. Nurs. 29, 2756–2757.

Van Gorp, K. (2013). The Second Shift: Why it is diminishing but still an issue. The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research. 14, 31-37.

Vaziri, H., Casper, W.J., Wayne, J.H. and Matthews, R.A. (2020). Changes to the work–family interface during the COVID-19 pandemic: Examining predictors and implications using latent transition analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology. 105, 1073-1087.

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C.S. and Ho, R.C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051729

Whittle, A., and Mueller, F. (2009). ‘I could be dead for two weeks and my boss would never know’: telework and the politics of representation. New Technology, Work and Employment. 24, 131-143.

Williams, K.J., Suls, J., Alliger, G.M., Learner, S.M. and Wan, C.K. (1991). Multiple role juggling and daily mood states in working mothers: an experience sampling study. Journal of Applied Psychology. 76, 664-674.

Williams, J. (2000). Unbending gender: Why family and work conflict and what to do about it. New York: Oxford University Press.

Yu, J., Park, J. and Hyun, S.S. (2021). Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on employees’ work stress, well-being, mental health, organizational citizenship behavior, and employee-customer identification. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management. 30, 529-548.

Zembylas, M., Bozalek, V. and Shefer, T. (2014). Tronto's notion of privileged irresponsibility and the reconceptualisation of care: Implications for critical pedagogies of emotion in higher education. Gender and Education. 26, 200-214.

Zhao, L., and Roper, J. (2011). A Confucian approach to well‐being and social capital development. Journal of Management Development. 30, 740-752.

Zheng, L., Miao, M. and Gan, Y. (2020). Perceived control buffers the effects of the COVID‐19 pandemic on general health and life satisfaction: The mediating role of psychological distance. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being. 12, 1095-1114.