Determinants of Drought Risk Reduction Adoption Decisions: A Case Study of Gwembe Rural Communities-Zambia

Authors

  • Joan Mwanza University of Lusaka
  • Evaristo Nsenduluka Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
  • Overson Shumba Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia

Keywords:

adoption decision, constraints, determinants, Drought, Resilience Building, Risk reduction

Abstract

Like any other natural hazards, the frequency and intensity of drought events are increasingly being understood within the context of global climate variability. The subsequent growing emphasis on disaster risk management entails adopting risk reduction initiatives for resilience building. The study aimed to establish perceived determinants of household adoption decisions of drought risk reduction strategies in Gwembe rural. An interpretative paradigm underpinned this study, with a qualitative approach confined to a case study. The study engaged 140 participants selected through purposive and convenience sampling and subjected to open-ended, in-depth interviews. The study utilised thematic data analysis with the aid of Nvivo Pro 12. Findings showed that determinants of drought risk reduction adoption decisions were predominantly socio-economic, environmental and institutional based. It was concluded that some interconnectedness existed between perceived determinants of adoption decisions and constraints faced in adopting risk reduction initiatives. Additionally, low adoption and high levels of no adoption tendencies affected the progression of resilience building to future drought events.  A project planning approach incorporating strategies for addressing significant constraints and adopting risk reduction was recommended.

 

References

Adnan, K.M., Ying, L., Sarker, S.A., Yu, M., Eliw, M., Sultanuzzaman, M.R. and Huq, M.E., (2021). Simultaneous adoption of risk management strategies to manage the catastrophic risk of maize farmers in Bangladesh. GeoJournal, 86, pp.1981-1998. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-020-10154-y

Ajzen, I. (2020). The theory of planned behaviour: Frequently asked questions. Human Behaviour and Emerging Technologies, 2(4), 314-324. https://DOI: 10.1002/hbe2.195

Alexander, D. (2018). A magnitude scale for cascading disasters. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 30, 180-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.03.006

Allan, L., and Andrew, M., (2014). The future of disaster risk management, Environmental Hazards, 13:4, 267-280, DOI: 10.1080/17477891.2014.935282

Arslan, A., McCarthy, N., Lipper, L., Asfaw, S. and Cattaneo, A., (2014). Adoption and intensity of adoption of conservation farming practices in Zambia. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 187, pp.72-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.08.017

Bandura, A. (2014). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In Handbook of moral behavior and development (pp. 69-128). Psychology press. Retrieved from: https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/document?repid

Begho, T. (2021). Using farmers’ risk tolerance to explain variations in adoption of improved rice varieties in Nepal. Journal of South Asian Development, 16(2), 171-193. https://doi.org/10.1177/09731741211023636

Boddy, C.R., (2016). Sample size for qualitative research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 19(4), pp.426-432. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/qmr-06-2016-0053/full/html

Bunclark, L., Gowing, J., Oughton, E., Ouattara, K., Ouoba, S. and Benao, D., (2018). Understanding farmers’ decisions on adaptation to climate change: Exploring adoption of water harvesting technologies in Burkina Faso. Global Environmental Change, 48, pp.243-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.12.004

Cenacchi, N. (2014). Drought risk reduction in agriculture: A review of adaptive strategies in East Africa and the Indo-Gangetic plain of South Asia. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?hl

Central Statistics Office Report ( CSO), (2010). Lusaka, Zambia

Colson, E. and Scudder, T., (2018). New economic relationships between the Gwembe Valley and the Line of Rail. In Town and Country in Central and Eastern Africa (pp. 190-210). Routledge. Retrieved from: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780429490453-10/

Creswell, J.W. and Creswell, J.D., (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications. Retrieved from: http://www.ceil-conicet.gov.ar/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Creswell-Cap-10.pdf.

Dale, L. (2018). Anticipate, Absorb, Reshape (A2R) A Baseline Study of Climate Resilience in Developing Countries. Consilience, (19), 36-57. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26427711#

Daniel, B. K. (2019, June). Student experience of the maximum variation framework for determining sample size in qualitative research. In 18th European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies (p. 92). Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?

Dhakal, K., (2022). NVivo. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 110(2), p.270. https://doi.org/ 10.5195/jmla.2022.1271

Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American journal of theoretical and applied statistics, 5(1), 1-4. https://doi: 10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11

Gerber, N., Nkonya, E., & von Braun, J. (2014). Land degradation, poverty and marginality. Marginality: Addressing the nexus of poverty, exclusion and ecology, 181-202. https://library.oapen.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.12657/28031/10.1007_978-94-007-7061-4.pdf

Giller, K. E., Andersson, J. A., Corbeels, M., Kirkegaard, J., Mortensen, D., Erenstein, O., & Vanlauwe, B. (2015). Beyond conservation agriculture. Frontiers in plant science, 6, 870. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00870

Grabowski, P.P., Kerr, J.M., Haggblade, S. and Kabwe, S., (2016). Determinants of adoption and disadoption of minimum tillage by cotton farmers in eastern Zambia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 231, pp.54-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.06.027

Gupta, A. K., Nair, S. S., Wajih, S. A., Chopde, S., Gupta, G., & Aggrawal, G. (2014). Mainstreaming climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction into district level development plans. NIDM New Delhi (India), GEAG Gorakhpur (UP, India) and ISET, Colorado (US), P, 114. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Garima-Aggarwal-8/publication/287546336

Hirpha, H.H., Mpandeli, S. and Bantider, A., (2020). Determinants of adaptation strategies to climate change among the smallholder farmers in Adama District, Ethiopia. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 12(4), pp.463-476. Retrieved from: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJCCSM-01-2019-0002/full/html

Raikes, J., Smith, T. F., Baldwin, C., & Henstra, D. (2022). The influence of international agreements on disaster risk reduction. International Journal of disaster risk reductión, 76, 102999. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2022.102999

Khoza, S., van Niekerk, D. and Nemakonde, L.D., (2022). Gendered vulnerability and inequality: understanding drivers of climate-smart agriculture dis-and non-adoption among smallholder farmers in Malawi and Zambia. Ecology and Society, 27(4). https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-13480-270419

Maher, C., Hadfield, M., Hutchings, M., & De Eyto, A. (2018). Ensuring rigor in qualitative data analysis: A design research approach to coding combining NVivo with traditional material methods. International journal of qualitative methods, 17(1), 1609406918786362. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406918786

Makondo, C.C., Chola, K. and Moonga, B., (2014). Climate change adaptation and vulnerability: A case of rain dependent small-holder farmers in selected districts in Zambia. American Journal of Climate Change, 3(04), p.388. Retrieved from: https://www.scirp.org/html/4-2360196_52218.htm

Mubanga, K.H. and Umar, B.B., (2014). Smallholder farmers' responses to rainfall variability and soil fertility problems by the use of indigenous knowledge in Chipepo, Southern Zambia. Journal of Agricultural Science, 6(6), p.75. https:// DOI:10.5539/jas. v6n6p75

Mulenga, M. (2021). Government agricultural policy and rural poverty in Gwembe district of Southern province of Zambia, 1964-2011 (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Zambia). Retrieved from : http://dspace.unza.zm/handle/123456789/7496

Paton, D. and Johnston, D., (2017). Disaster resilience: an integrated approach. Charles C Thomas Publisher. https://books.google.com/books?hl

Saldarriaga, M., Nyanga, P.H. and Kopainsky, B., (2014). Dynamic decision making in coupled social–ecological systems. In 32nd international conference of the system dynamics society (pp. 20-24). Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Birgit-Kopainsky/publication/281280672

Saunders, M.N., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. and Bristow, A., (2015). Understanding research philosophy and approaches to theory development. Retrieved from: http://catalogue.pearsoned.co.uk/educator/product/Research-Methods-for-Business-Students/9781292016627

Savari, M., Shokati Amghani, M. (2021). Factors influencing farmers’ adaptation strategies in confronting the drought in Iran. Environ Dev Sustain 23, 4949–4972, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-00798-8

Shiferaw, B., Tesfaye, K., Kassie, M., Abate, T., Prasanna, B.M. and Menkir, A., (2014). Managing vulnerability to drought and enhancing livelihood resilience in sub-Saharan Africa: Technological, institutional and policy options. Weather and climate extremes, 3, pp.67-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2014.04.004

Khoza, S., van Niekerk, D., & Nemakonde, L. D. (2022). A Decade of Inaction in the SADC region? -disaster risk data gaps and inconsistencies on the Sendai Framework Monitor. Progress in Disaster Science, 16, 100250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pdisas.2022.100250

Susan L. Cutter, Joseph A. Ahearn, Bernard Amadei, Patrick Crawford, Elizabeth A. Eide, Gerald E. Galloway, Michael F. Goodchild, Howard C. Kunreuther, Meredith Li-Vollmer, Monica Schoch-Spana, Susan C. Scrimshaw, Ellis M. Stanley, Gene Whitney & Mary Lou Zoback, (2013). Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 55:2, 25-29, DOI: 10.1080/00139157.2013.768076

Thinda, K.T., Ogundeji, A.A., Belle, J.A. and Ojo, T.O., (2020). Understanding the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies among smallholder farmers: Evidence from land reform beneficiaries in South Africa. Land Use Policy, 99, p.104858. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104858

Tozier de la Poterie, A. and Baudoin, M.A., (2015). From Yokohama to Sendai: Approaches to participation in international disaster risk reduction frameworks. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 6, pp.128-139. Retrieved from : https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13753-015-0053-6

Tsang, E. W. (2014). Generalizing from research findings: The merits of case studies. International Journal of Management Reviews, 16(4), 369-383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2013.09.002

Twigg, J., (2015). Disaster risk reduction. Retrieved from: http://bvpad.indeci.gob.pe/doc/pdf/esp/doc2601/doc2601-contenido.pdf

UNDRR, (2021). Droughts Or Floods. Retrieved from: https://www.preventionweb.net/news/droughts-or-floods

UNISDR. (2015). (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction). (2015). Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015–2030. Geneva: UNISDR. Retrieved from: https://www.undrr.org/publication/sendai-framework-disaster-risk-reduction-2015-2030

UNISDR. (2016b). HFA National Progress Reports. Retrieved from http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/progress/reports/?pid:222

Wanner, M.S., (2021). The effectiveness of soft law in international environmental regimes: participation and compliance in the Hyogo Framework for Action. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 21(1), pp.113-132. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10784-020-09490-8

Wens, M.L., Mwangi, M.N., van Loon, A.F. and Aerts, J.C., (2021). Complexities of drought adaptive behaviour: Linking theory to data on smallholder farmer adaptation decisions. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 63, p.102435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102435

Yin, R. K., (2013). Validity and generalization in future case study evaluations. Evaluation, 19(3), 321-332. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356389013497

Zamawe, F. C. (2015). The implication of using NVivo software in qualitative data analysis: Evidence-based reflections. Malawi Medical Journal, 27(1), 13-15. https://DOI:10.4314/mmj.v27i1.4

Zambia National Disaster Management Policy, (2015). DMMU, Lusaka, Zambia.

Zambia Vulnerability Assessment Committee Report (ZVAC) (2015), DMMU Lusaka Zambia,

Downloads

Published

2024-05-08