Facile Green Synthesis of Novel Nanocarbon Materials from Agricultural Waste


  • Manoj Balachandran CHRIST (Deemed to be University)
  • Anu N Mohan Christ University


charcoal, chemical intercalation, porous graphene nano sheets, mixed structure.


A novel synthesis method for the elucidation of porous graphene nanosheets (PGN) from agricultural product like wood and coconut shell charcoal is reported herein. Precursors for the present study is obtained by the thermal decomposition of agricultural waste namely wood (WS) and coconut shell (CSS). The chemical modification of the carbon structures present in the samples are achieved by using a modified Hummers’ method followed by extensive sonication. Analysis of chemically treated samples with various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques revealed the presence of few layer large area graphene (PGN) with oxygen functionalities added to it. Agricultural waste material are potential precursors for the large scale synthesis of low cost graphene sheet and graphene quantum dots.

Author Biographies

Manoj Balachandran, CHRIST (Deemed to be University)

Department of Physics and Electronics, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore

Anu N Mohan, Christ University

Department of Physics and Electronics, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore



1. Y. Zhu. et al., Graphene and Graphene Oxide: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications, Ad. Mat., 22:3906–3924, 2010.
2. B. Manoj. “Synthesis and Characterization of porous, mixed phase, wrinkled, few layer graphene like nanocarbon from charcoal” Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 89(13): 2438-2442, 2015.
3. A.V.Ramya, A.N Mohan, B Manoj., Wrinkled graphene: synthesis and characterization of few layer graphene-like nanocarbon from kerosene, Material Science-Poland, 34 (2):330-336, 2016.
4. A.K. Geim et al., The rise of graphene, Mature Mat.,. 6,183-191, 2007.
5. Q. Liu et al., Preparation of graphene-encapsulated magnetic microspheres for protein/peptide enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS analysis, Chem. Comm., 48: 1874-1876, 2012.
6. A.G. Kunjomana, B Manoj, Systematic Investiagtions of graphene layers in sub-bituminous coal, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 87(11):1726-1732, 2014.
7. Hummers W. et al., Preparation of graphitic oxide, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 80:1339, 1958.
8. B Manoj, Chemical demineralization of high volatile Indian bituminous coal by carboxylic acid and charactetization of the products by SEM/EDS, Journal of Environmental research and Development. 6(3A), 2012.
9. A.V Ramya, A.N.Mohan, B.Manoj, Extraction and Chararcterization of wrinkled graphene nanolyers from commercial graphite, Asian.J.of Chemistry, 28(5):1031-1034, 2016.
10. S. Stankovich et al., Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide, Carbon, 45:1558–1565, 2007.
11. B Manoj. Characterization of Nanocrystalline Carbon from Camphor and Diesel by X-ray diffraction technique, Asian J. of Chemistry, 26 (15):4553-4556, 2014.
12. C.D. Elcey, B. Manoj, Graphitization of Coal by Bio-solubilzation: Structure Probe by Raman Spectroscopy, Asian J, of Chemistry, 28(7):1557-1560, 2016.
13. B Manoj, A.M. Raj, GC Thomas, Tailoring of low grade coal to fluorescent nanocarbon structures and their potential as a glucose sensor. Scientific reports 8 (1), 1-9, 2018.
14. Aparna V Nair, B Manoj, Tailoring of Energy Band Gap inGraphene-like System by Fluorination, Mapana-Journal of Sciences 18 (1), 55-66, 2019.
15. V. L Pushparaj et al. Flexible energy storage devices based on nanocomposite paper, Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 104:13574-7, 2007.
16. B. Manoj, C.D. Elcey, Demineralization of coal by stepwise bioleaching: a study of sub-bituminous Indian coal by FTIR and SEM. Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and metallurgy 45 (4), 385-390, 2010.
17. C.D. Elcey, B. Manoj, Demineralization of sub-bituminous coal by fungal leaching: A structural characterization by X-ray and FTIR analysis” Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment 17(8): 11-15, 2013.
18. R.J.Nemanich et al., First- and second-order Raman scattering from finite size crystals of graphite, Phys Rev B, 20: 392–401, 1979.
19. Ponni Narayanan, B Manoj, Study of Changes to the organic functional groups of a high volatile bituminous coal during organic acid treatment process by FTIR spectroscopy, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 1(02):39, 2013.
20. Mennella V.et al., Raman spectra of carbon based materials excited at 1064 nm, Carbon. 33:115-2, 1995..
21. A. Sadezky et al., Raman microspectroscopy of soot and related carbonaceous materials: Spectral analysis and structural information, Carbon.43: 1731-1742, 2005.
22. B Manoj, AM Raj, GT Chirayil., Facile synthesis of preformed mixed nano-carbon structure from low rank coal. Materials Science-Poland 36 (1), 14-20, 2018.
23. Anu N Mohan, B Manoj, Sandhya Panicker, Facile synthesis of graphene-tin oxide nanocomposite derived from agricultural waste for enhanced antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Scientific Reports, 4170. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-40916-9.2019.
24. B Manoj, A.M. Raj, G.T Chirayil, Tunable direct band gap photoluminescent organic semiconducting nanoparticles from lignite Scientific reports 7 (1), 1-9, 2017.

Additional Files