Sustainability Issues of Aqua Tourism in Kerala

  • J H Akash Anna University
  • I Arul Aram Anna University, Chennai, India
Keywords: natural torusim, ecotourism, sustainable tourism, adventure tourism, enviornmental livelihood

Abstract

Tourism is interlinked with the natural environment and generates a lot of employment opportunities. The rapid growth of tourism industries has led to the destruction of nature because in most cases, tourism industry concentrates only on economic viability. The development of the tourism industry should balance with ecology, society, culture, and economy for their sustainability. The quality of nature is essential for tourism. The negative impact of tourism development can gradually destroy natural environmental resources on which it depends. In this paper, the authors describe the effects of tourism on natural resources, environmental pollution, and recent issues associated with Kerala tourism with specific reference of coastal areas.

References

Adventure Nation. (2017). Adventure Nation. Retrieved from Adventure Tour and Travel
Agency: https://www.adventurenation.com/
Agoramoorthy, G., & Sivaperuman, C. (2014). Tourism, tribes and tribulations in
Andaman Islands. Current Science, 106(2), 141. Retrieved from http://www.currentscience.ac.in/Volumes/106/02/0141.pdf
Airnb. (2017). Airnb Home Page. Retrieved from https:// www.airbnb.co.in/?logo=1
Bangalore Adventure School. (2017). Canyon. Retrieved from Bangalore Adventure School: http://bangaloreadventureschool.com/
Chandy, J., & Rajesh, R. (2017). Impact of back water tourism in Kerala. International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development, 4(7), 227-232.
Drumm, A., & Moore, A. (2005). Ecotourism Development - A Manual for Conservation Planners and Managers: An Introduction to Ecotourism Planning. In The nature conservancy. doi:Ecotourism_Development_Vol1_Eng_2nd_Edition.pdf
Eriksson, H. (2003). Rhetoric and marketing device or potential and perfect partnership?-A case study of Kenyan community tourism, 1-8. Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umea University, Sweden. Retrived from http://www.nmd.umu.se/ digitalAssets/ 42/42180_erikssonh.pdf
Gale, T., & Hill, J. (2009). Ecotourism and environmental sustainability: An introduction.Ashgate Publishing Limited, England.
Gelcich, S. B. (2014). Public awareness, concerns, and priorities about anthropogenic impacts on marine environments. Proceedings of theNational Academy of Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.pnas.org/ content/ 111/42/ 15042
Glasson, J., Godfrey, K., Absalom, H., & Borg , J. V. (1995). Towards visitor impact management: visitor impacts, carrying capacity and management responses in Europe's historic towns and cities. Avebury Aldershot Publisher.
Hall, C. M. (2001). Trends in ocean and coastal tourism: The end of the last frontier? Ocean & Coastal Management, 601-618. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d504/cd146181e9fe44808ff287cb31b4fd86058e.pdf
Halpern, B. S. (2007, October). Evaluating and ranking the vulnerability of global marine ecosystems to anthropogenic threats. Conservation Biology, 21(5), 1301-1315. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/ abs/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00752.x
Hatton, M. (1999). Malaysia: Kampung Desa Muni, the homestay program. In Community-based tourism in Asia-Pacific. Canada: Number College Ontario. Retrieved from http://cullin.org/cbt/ index.cfm? section=chapter&number=10
Hawaii. (2014). News website . US: Baron Sekiya. Retrieved from
https://www.hawaii247.com/
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Beal, D., Chaudhry, T., Elhaj, H., Abdullat, A., Etessy, P., & Smits, M. (2015). Reviving the ocean economy: The case for action–2015. Switzerland: WWF. Retrieved from http:// awsassets.wwfar.panda.org/ downloads/ oc_revivingoceaneconomy _ v24_full_report_lr.pdf
Honey, M. (1999). Ecotourism and sustainable development: Who owns paradise?Washington: Island Press.
Indian Express Newspaper. (2018, May). Destination of the week. Indian Express.
ISRO. (2012). Coastal Zones of India. Ahmedabad: Space Application Centre. Retrieved from http://www.moef.nic.in/ sites/default/ files/ Coastal_Zones _of_India.pdf
Joseph, E. K., Tomy , K. K., & Varghese, B. (2017). Community-based waste management: backwater tourism as a case example. Atna - Journal of Tourism Studies, 85-94.
Kadam, D., Bhanot, S., & Savant, D. (2017). Awareness of marine pollution in fishermen communities in Mumbai. In Current perspectives in sustainable environment management, pp. 304-311. Mumbai, India: SIES Indian Institute of Environment Management.
Kannanthanam, A. (2018). New Initiatives. Retrieved from Tourism Ministry : http://tourism.gov.in/
Karnad, D. (2017). Navigating customary law and state fishing legislation to create effective fisheries governance in India. Media Policy, 86, 241-246.
Kiper, T. (2013). Role of ecotourism in sustainable development. In Advances in Landscape Architecture (pp. 773-802). IntechOpen, UK. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/55749
Manickam, S. (2017). Coastal Land Use in India: A Discussion. National Sea Grant Library, 354-358. Retrieved from http://nsgl.gso.uri.edu/riu/ riuc04001/pdffiles/papers/20510.pdf
Matsuoka, J., & Kelly, T. (1998). The Environmental, Economic, and Social Impacts of Resort Development and Tourism on Native Hawaiians. The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 29-44.
Ministry of Tourism. (2017). Homestay. Retrieved from Ministry of Tourism , Govt of India: http://tourism.gov.in/
Mishra, S., Srinivas, C., Singh , S., & Savant, D. (2017). Current Perspectives in Sustainable Environment Management (1 ed.). Mumbai: SIES Indian Institute of Environment Management.
Modlin, E. A. (2011). Tour Guides as Creators of Empathy: The Role of Affective Inequality in Marginalising the Enslaved at Plantation House Museum. Journal of Tourism Studies, 3-19.
Mowforth, M., & Munt, I. (1998). Tourism and sustainability: new tourism in the Third World.New York: Routledge.
Nammalwar, P. (2008). Database on Coastal Information of Tamil Nadu. Chennai: Institute for Ocean Management.
Natarajan, J. (2012). Message. In ISRO, Coasal Zone of India. Ahmedabad : Space Application Centre.
Outlook. (2008, August). Marine debris. India: Outlook Publishing India Pvt. Ltd.
Paul, C. M., & Smitha, M. (2014). Need for tourism infrastructure development in Alappuzha. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 71-73.
Pillai, R. (2010). Seven Ps Spectrum of Marketing in Tourism. Indian Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Management, 1(2), 84-97. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/ 267982689 _Seven _Ps_Spectrum_of_Marketing_in_Tourism
Sunlu, U. (2003). Environmental impacts of tourism. Options Mediterraneennes, 263-270. Retrieved from http:// ressources. ciheam.org/ om/pdf/a57/04001977.pdf
The Hindu. (2017). Suchitwa Sagaram. Newspaper. Kerala: Hindu.
TIES. (2015). Definition: Ecotourism. Retrieved from http:// www.ecotourism.org/what-is-ecotourism
Times of India. (2018). Ocean and Plastic . Newspaper. The Times Group.
UNEP. (2018). Single-Use Plastics. Retrieved from United Nations Environmental Programme: https://www.unenvironment.org/
UNWTO. (2001). U N World Tourism Organization. Retrieved from Definition: Sustainable Development of Tourism. : http:// www2.unwto.org/
Vijayakumar, B. (1995). Sustainable development of ecotourism in Kerala. Ph.D. Thesis. Thiruvananthapuram, India: University of Kerala.
WTTC. (2018). Country Report. Retrieved from World Travel and Tourism Council: https://www.wttc.org/
Published
2018-07-01