Sustainable Development of Tourism in the Eastern Europe: A Case Study of Romania
The strategies of sustainable development emphasize the interdependence between the local and the global, between the already developed countries and the ones following this course, underlining the necessity of cooperation within economical, social and environmental sections. Since, tourism plays an important role in the improvement standards of living and rising people above the poverty threshold, it has become a platform to transform the vicious circles of misery, into virtuous circles towards productive transformation, welfare and improvement of human capita/. The complexity involved in constructing knowledge in different contextual frames make the entire debate on sustainable tourism extremely problematic, especially since stake holding communities are spread across continents and cultures. Many developing countries have found important to improve the linking of tourism (forward and backward) with the other sectors of the economy, so as to capitalize on the benefits of the globalisation and internationalisation of markets. Despite developing countries effort to develop the most suitable domestic policy environment, the economic sustainability of tourism is being undermined by external factors beyond their control, notably the predatory behaviour of integrated suppliers which enjoy a dominant position in the originating markets of tourism flows. Today, the Romanian hospitality industry confronts itself with problems such as the decline of the internal and external touristic demand, an old touristic product, the low standard in the services which do not satisfy the tourists' expectations, the payment and too high prices compared to the quality of the services, an insufficient promotion. Among the countries from the East and Center Europe, Romania is considered the country which possesses the richest and most varied natural touristic resources created by man and this gives a great disposability for tourism. The Romanian international touristic demand registers a diminution tendency due to some causes such as the low quality level of the offered touristic services, the touristic services non-diversification, the reduced amusement possibilities. Regional development policy is an ensemble of measures planned and promoted by the local and central public administration authorities, having as partners different actors (private, public, volunteers) in order to ensure a dynamic and lasting economic growth, through the effective use of the local and regional potential, in order to improve living conditions. The main areas regarded by the regional policies are development of enterprises, the labor market, attracting investments, development of the SMEs sector, improvement of infrastructure, the quality of the environment, rural development, health, education, culture. Any tourism growth and development activities in Romania should not be myopic and sustainability should be ensured at all levels: both inter and intro-generational.