Motivation for Adventure Tourism through Off-Roading – A Study in the Hill Areas of Kerala, India


  • Tony Joy School of Business Studies and Social Sciences, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore, India.
  • Jose K Antony School of Commerce, Rajagiri College of Social Sciences (Autonomous) Cochin, India.



Tourism Motivation, Off-Roading, Adventure Tourism, Responsible Tourism


Increase in the number of participants who are interested in Off-Roading Trips has contributed to the growth of the local tourism economy of the hill areas of Kerala, but it was found that Off-Roading without any control, would create serious repercussions to the natural environment in the areas. The study focused on the popularity and the significance of Off-Roading Trips in the Hill Areas of Kottayam, Idukki, Pathanamthitta and Wayanad and suggests strategies to be adopted so as to improve sustainable Off-Roading practices in the regions.


Andrews, R. N., & Nowak, P. F. (1980), Off-Road Vehicle Use: A Management Challenge. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Extension Service. Badaracco, J., (1976), ORVs: Often Rough on Visitors. Parks and Recreation. Vol 11. No 9. Page 32-35, 68-75. Bellamy, Radforth., & Radforth, N.,(1971),Terrain, Traffic, and Tundra. Nature. Page 429-432. Berning, C. G., & Lang, S., (1999), Off the Track: America‟s National Park‟s Under Siege. Bluewater Network. Page 1-41. Bleich, J. L., (1988) “Chrome on the Range: Off -Road Vehicles on Public Lands.” Ecology Law Review 15: 159-187. Bowker, J. M., (1997), A demand analysis of off-road motorized recreation, in: Proceedings of Association of Marketing Theory and Practice. Expanding Marketing Horizons into the 21st Century. Page 387–391. Boyle, S., (1985), Effects of Non-Consumptive Recreation on Wildlife: A Review. Wildlife Society Bullentin. Vol 13. No 2. Page 110-116.

Buckley, R.,(2004),Environmental Impacts of Motorized Off-highway Vehicles. Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism. Page 83-98. Burr, J G., et al. (2009), ATV and ORM Health Benefit Study Fact Sheet. Canadian Off Highway Vehicle Distributors Council. Page 1-3. Burr, J. G., & Jamnik, N., (2010), Physiological Demands of Off-Road Vehicle Riding. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Vol 42. Issue 7. Page 1345 – 1354. Crompton, J. L., (1979), Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4),408-424. Dame, J. K., & Mangun, W. R., (2000) “Interjurisdictional Issues of Off -Road Vehicle Use on Public Lands: The Need for Uniform but Flexible Guidelines.” Abstract, Page 75-76, in Book of Abstracts: 8th International Symposium on Society and Resource Management. Deisenroth, D., et al., (2009), Non-Market Valuation of off-highway vehicle recreation in Larimer County, Colorado: Implications of Trail Closures. Journal of Environmental Management. Vol 90. Page 3490-3497. Dunlap, R. E., & Heffernan, R. B., (1975), Outdoor recreation and environmental concern: An empirical examination. Rural Sociology, 40, 19-30. Englin, J., & et al., (2006), Alternative models of recreational off-highway vehicle site demand. Environmental & Resource Economics 35, 327–338. Englin, J., & Holmes, T., (2005), User fees and the demand of OHV recreation from benefits and costs of resource policies affecting public and private land. Papers from the Annual Meeting. Utah, Salt Lake City, February 14–15. Griggs, G. W., (1981), The Impact, Control and Mitigation of Off-Road Vehicle Activity in Hungry Valley, California. Environmental Geology. Page. 229-243. Hall, C., & Dearden, P., (1984), The Impact of “Non-Consumptive” Recreation on Wildlife: An Annotated Bibliography. Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies. Helmkamp, J. A., & Lawrence, M. E.,(2009), ATV and Bicycle Deaths and Associated Costs in the United States: 2000-2005. Journal of Public Health. Vol 124. No 3. Page 409-418. Hinckley, B. S., & et al., (1983) Accelerated water erosion in ORV- use areas. In: Webb, Robert H. and Howard G. Wilshire (eds.), Environmental effects of off-road Vehicles: Impacts and management in arid regions. Springer- Verlag. New York. Kirkbride, S., (2010), ATVing Trends and Economic Examining Benefits. Municipality of Dysart, Haliburton Ontario.U-Links Centre for Community Based Research. Page 1-48.

Kockelman, W. J.,(1983), Environmental Effects of Off- Road Vehicles: Impacts and management in Arid Regions. Edited by R.H. Webb and H.G. Wilshire. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag. Page 399-446. Lawrence, B. A., (2007),The Economic Burden of All-Terrain Vehicle-Related Pediatric Deaths in the United States. Pediatrics. Vol 119. No 1. Page 223-225. Lodico, N. J., (1973) The Environmental Effects of Off -Road Vehicles: A Review of the Literature. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Library Services, Research Services Branch. Major, M. J., (1987), “Managing Off -Road Vehicles.” Journal of Forestry 85(11): 37-41. Ministry of Environment and Tourism (2008), New rules for off-road driving, applicable on a trial basis from December 2008. page. 2. Ministry of Environment and Tourism Moore, R. L., & Driver, B. L., (2005), Introduction to outdoor recreation: Providing and managing natural resource-based opportunities. State College, PA: Venture Publishing. Moss, D., & McPhee, D. P., (2006), The Impacts of Recreational Four-Wheel Driving on a Subtropical Sandy Beach in SE Queensland. Coastal Management, 34, 133 - 140. Nakata, J. S., & Wilshire, S., (1978), Impacts of Off-Road Vehicles on Vegetation. Transactions of the 43rd North American. Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. 131-139. Olive, N. D., & Marion, J. L., (2008), The influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss from recreational trails. Journal of Environmental Management. Vol 90. Page 1483-1493. Priskin, J., (2003), Physical impacts of four-wheel drive related tourism and recreation in a semi-arid, natural coastal environment. Ocean & Coastal Management, 46, 127-155. Silberman, J., & Andereck, K. L., (2006)The economic value of off-highway vehicle recreation. Journal of Leisure Research 18, 208–223. Van Der Merwe, D., (1988), The effects of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on coastal ecosystems –a review. Report 17, Page. 64. SAB Institute for Coastal Research, Port Elizabeth.




How to Cite

Joy, T., & Antony, J. K. (2021). Motivation for Adventure Tourism through Off-Roading – A Study in the Hill Areas of Kerala, India. Atna Journal of Tourism Studies, 14(2), 51-70.