Policy Response to the Tourism Crisis during the COVID-19 Pandemic

A Meta Policy Analysis of Select Countries


  • Chaitanya Pradeep N Assistant Professor of Political Science, Bannerghatta Road (BGR) Campus, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore, India
  • Sumyrah Afreen Khan CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore, India;




Tourism Crisis, Policy Response, Pandemic, Political Ideology


The Pandemic cracked the fragile mold of what was decided as the norm and pushed countries to resort to survival. Tourism, a mechanism proven to bridge gaps between cultures was worst affected on a global level and the only flotation device utilized were policies. Yet, States with different political ideologies, how have they responded in reality? Which ideology has become a tool to design the policy to address tourism crisis caused by the pandemic? remained an unexplored field of research. To address these questions there is a need to look at the policies initiated by selected countries representing varied political spectrum to analyse the pragmatically working ideology during/after the pandemic. Therefore, this study aims to observe the complexities of crisis management and the shift of ideology between the usual state of government to the adoption of a foreign even opposing ideology to rebuild after an unprecedented catastrophe. To enunciate its shift, the methodology divides its countries into ideologies based on liberal, socialist, and conservative categories and selects two countries each of which are contributing a major portion of GDP share to the tourism industry. The study had adopted the ideological approach to examine the select policies formulated by the respective countries to revive their tourism industry such as what are the bail-out programmes, financial aids, etc. The present study relied on a meta-analysis approach to identify, summarize, and analyze how the selected countries adopted different models to identify and define policy problems. Based on the findings of the meta-analysis, the study establishes that countries adopted ideologies that pragmatically worked and rejected ideologies that are inherently adopted as the state’s governing principle.

Author Biographies

Chaitanya Pradeep N, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Bannerghatta Road (BGR) Campus, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore, India

Assistant Professor of Political Science, Bannerghatta Road (BGR) Campus, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore, India

Sumyrah Afreen Khan, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore, India;

CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore, India;


Air NZ mercy flight from coronavirus-stricken Wuhan, China arrives in Auckland, retrieved January, 15 from: https://www.tvnz.co.nz/one-news/new-zealand/air-nz-mercy-flight-coronavirus-stricken-wuhan-china-arrives-in-auckland.

Breisinger Clemens, Latif Abla A, Raouf Mariam and WiebeltManfred, (2020). Economic impact of COVID-19 on tourism and remittances: Insights from Egypt, International food policy research institute. (n.d.).Retrieved from https://www.ifpri.org/blog/economic-impact-covid-19-tourism-and-remittances-insights-egypt

Carley, M. (1980). Problem areas in analysis. Rational Techniques in Policy Analysis, 63-84.

Clarance Andrew, (2020). Aarogya Setu: Why India's Covid-19 contact tracing app is controversial, Retreicved March 12, from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-52659520.

Congress. "H.R.748 - CARES Act." Retrieved January 26, 2021 from https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/senate-bill/3548/text?q=product+actualizaci%C3%B3n

Davahli, M. R., Karwowski, W., Sonmez, S., & Apostolopoulos, Y. (2020). The Hospitality Industry in the Face of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Current Topics and Research Methods. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(20), 7366.

Dorey, P. (2005). Defining problems and devising policies. In Policy making in Britain: An introduction, SAGE Publications Ltd, 8-48.

Dunn, W. N. (2017). Structuring policy problems. Public Policy Analysis, Routledge, 68-117.

Geva-May, Iris. and Wildavsky, Aaron B. (1997). An operational approach to policy analysis: the craft: prescriptions for better analysis. Boston, Mass. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hanberger, A. (2001). What is the Policy Problem?: Methodological Challenges in Policy Evaluation. Evaluation, 7(1), 45–62

Hao, F., Xiao, Q., & Chon, K. (2020). COVID-19 and China's Hotel Industry: Impacts, a Disaster Management Framework, and Post-Pandemic Agenda. International journal of hospitality management, 90, 102636.

Henderson J C. (2007). Crisis, tourism and tourism crisis management. Managing Tourism Crises, Routledge, 177-194.

Hollingsworth, T. D., Ferguson, N. M., & Anderson, R. M. (2007). Frequent travelers and rate of spread of epidemics. Emerging infectious diseases, 13(9), 1288–1294.

Hoornbeek, J. A., & Peters, B. G. (2017). Understanding policy problems: A refinement of past work. Policy and Society, 36(3), 365-384.

Jauhari, V. (2009), "Hospitality, tourism and economic growth in India", Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 7-11.

Johnson, J. W. (2012). Campaign spending in proportional electoral systems. Comparative Political Studies, 46(8), 968-993.

Kaushal, V., & Srivastava, S. (2021). Hospitality and tourism industry amid COVID-19 pandemic: Perspectives on challenges and learnings from India. International journal of hospitality management, 92, 102707.

Nath, K. J. (2003) Home hygiene and environmental sanitation: a country situation analysis for India, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 13, 19-28.

Lettieri, E., Masella, C. and Radaelli, G. (2009), "Disaster management: findings from a systematic review", Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 117-136.

Nguyen D., Imamura F., Iuchi K. (2017). Public-private collaboration for disaster risk management: A case study of hotels in Matsushima, Japan. Tourism Management.61:129–140.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2020). Tourism policy responses to the coronavirus (COVID-19). (n.d.).Retrieved January 18, from https:// www.oecd.org/ coronavirus/policy-responses/tourism-policy-responses-to-the-coronavirus-covid-19-6466aa20/

Peters, G. B. (2005). The problem of policy problems. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 7(4), 349-370



How to Cite

Pradeep N, C. ., & Khan, S. A. (2021). Policy Response to the Tourism Crisis during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Meta Policy Analysis of Select Countries. Atna Journal of Tourism Studies, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.12727/ajts.25.6