An Analysis on the Trend and Pattern of Tourism in India with Special Reference to Medical Tourism


  • T.D. Simon Thermadham Sree Keralavarma College, Thrissur, Kerala
  • C. P. Shaheed Ramzan Associate Professor of Economics, Govt. Arts & Science College, Calicut, Kerala



Domestic tourism, Medical tourism, inequality, trend and pattern


Tourism in India has not received the due attention both in macro policy formulation and research.  The present study tries to make an attempt to analyse the trend and pattern of domestic tourism based on the unit level data of NSSO. Medical tourism, which is an important component of tourism in India, shows a comparatively higher growth over the years, but especially after 2006 a lower growth rate and the covid pandemic accentuated this trend. Wide disparity could be seen among the states as well as across socio-economic groups in India. A higher share for health and medical tourists was visible among the vulnerable group. The marginalized groups like old age groups, tourism from rural area, SC/ST groups, lowest MPCE group and disabled persons had a higher chance to report medical tourism compared to their counterparts.  As against the findings of the previous studies, the present study confirms comparatively higher participation of vulnerable groups.


Akihito, N. (2017). Development of Tourism and the Tourist Industry in India: A Case Study of Uttarakhand, Journal of Urban and Regional Studies on Contemporary India 3 (2): 1-12.

Agnihotri, A. (2022). Medical Tourism in India: Top destinations, scenarios and all you need to know, Hindustan Times, December 3.

Baksi V. & Verma A.K. (2013). Domestic medical tourism in India: Some facets. J Hosp Tour Manag. 4(2):29–58.

Bhat, T. P. (2015). International Trade in Health Care Services: Prospects and Challenges for India. India Quarterly, 71(3), 239–254.

Bhatt, M. S., & Munjal, P. (2013). Social Accounting Matrix to Study the Socio-Economic Linkages of Tourism Sector – A Case Study of India. Indian Economic Review, 48(2), 381–412.

Cohen, I. G. (2010). Policy and politics: Medical Tourism: The View from Ten Thousand Feet. The Hastings Center Report, 40(2), 11–12.

deArellano, A. B. R. (2007). Patients Without Borders: The Emergence of Medical Tourism. International Journal of Health Services, 37(1), 193–198.

Faisal, M., & Dhusia, D. K. (2022). Globalization, Health Care System & Services, and Health Tourism: A Systematic Review. Atna Journal of Tourism Studies, 17(2), 141 - 163.

Forster, T., Kentikelenis, A. E., Stubbs, T. H., & King, L. P. (2020). Globalization and health equity: the impact of structural adjustment programs on developing countries. Social Science & Medicine, 267, 1–9.

Gidebo, H.B. (2021). Factors determining international tourist flow to tourism destinations: A systematic review. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Vol. 12(1), pp. 9-17 January-June.

Godwin, S. K. (2004). Medical Tourism: Subsidising the Rich. Economic and Political Weekly, 39(36), 3981–3983.

Hansen, B. E. (2001). The New Econometrics of Structural Change: Dating Breaks in U.S. Labour Productivity. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(4), 117–128.

Hazarika, I. (2010). Medical tourism: its potential impact on the health workforce and health systems in India. Health Policy and Planning, 25(3), 248–251.

Huberman, J. (2012). A Tourist Town. In Ambivalent Encounters: Childhood, Tourism, and Social Change in Banaras, India (pp. 18–32). Rutgers University Press.

Joshi, S. C., & Pant, P. (1990). Environmental Implications of the Recent Growth of Tourism in Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya, U.P., India. Mountain Research and Development, 10(4), 347–351.

Kaushal, V., Sharma, S., & Reddy, G. M. (2019). A structural analysis of destination brand equity in mountainous tourism destination in northern India. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19(4), 452–464.

Labont, R., Mohindra, K., & Schrecker, T. (2011). The growing impact of globalization on health and public health practice. Annual Review of Public Health, 32, 263–282.

LeDuc, M. (2012). Discourses of Heritage And Tourism at a World Heritage Site: The Case of Hampi, India. Practicing Anthropology, 34(3), 29–33.

Loh, C.-P. A. (2014). Is health tourism on the rise? Evidence from the Balance of Payments Statistics. The European Journal of Health Economics, 15(7), 759–766.

Maheu, J. M., & Gordon, S. (2008). Learning, Forecasting, and Structural Breaks. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 23(5), 553–583.

Mamun, M. Z., & Andaleeb, S. S. (2013). Prospects And Problems Of Medical Tourism In Bangladesh. International Journal of Health Services, 43(1), 123–141.

Meghani, Z. (2013). The Ethics of Medical Tourism: From The United Kingdom to India Seeking Medical Care. International Journal of Health Services, 43(4), 779–800.

Ministry of Tourism (2010). Analyzing the Factors Responsible for Slow-Down in Tourist Arrivals in India. Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management, Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, September.

Ministry of Tourism (2021). India Tourism Statistics 2021, Market Research Division, Government of India.

Ministry of Tourism (2022). India Tourism Statistics 2022, Market Research Division, Government of India.

Ministry of Tourism (2022b). National Strategy & Roadmap for Medical and Wellness Tourism: An Initiative Towards Aatmanirbhar Bharat, Government of India, January.

Munjal-Shankar, D. (2014). Medical Tourism, Surrogacy & The Legal Overtones - The Indian Tale. Journal of the Indian Law Institute, 56(1), 62–77.

Neog, R. (2011). Linking with Southeast Asia: Developing Northeast India’s Tourism Potential. Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies.

NSSO – National Sample Survey Organisation (2016). Key Indicators of Domestic Tourism in India: NSS 72nd Round (July 2014-June 2015). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India.

Oğuz, B., Gordon, G., & CRUZ, H. H. (2020). Medical Tourism In The Time Of Covid-19. Global Political Trends Center (GPoT).

Patil, V. (2011). Reproducing-Resisting Race and Gender Difference: Examining India’s Online Tourism Campaign from a Transnational Feminist Perspective. Signs, 37(1), 185–210.

Reddy, S., & Qadeer, I. (2010). Medical Tourism in India: Progress or Predicament? Economic and Political Weekly, 45(20), 69–75.

Roy, S. (2021). Domestic Medical Tourism to Study the Expectations of Domestic Medical Tourists, in Manjeet Singh and Subbaraman Kumaran (Ed.) Growth of the Medical Tourism Industry and Its Impact on Society: Emerging Research and Opportunities, IGI Global Publisher of Timely Knowledge

Schrecker, T. (2020). Globalization and health: political grand challenges. Review of International Political Economy, 27(1), 26–47.

Sengupta, A. (2011). Medical Tourism: Reverse Subsidy for the Elite. Signs, 36(2), 312–319.

Sharma, A., & Naraparaju, K. (2017). Domestic Tourism in India (2014–15): Evidence from NSSO. Economic and Political Weekly, 52(52), 27–30.

So, A., Furlong, M., & Heddini, A. (2010). Globalization and antibiotic resistance: Hospitals engaged in medical tourism can turn crisis into opportunity. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 341(7774), 615–616.

Thompson, C. (2011). Medical migrations afterwards: Science as a vacation? Body & Society 17:205-13.

Williams, A. T., Layton-Brown, M., Conneely, M., & Morgan, R. (2014). A very unusual “groin”, is the MV River Princess, Goa, India, and its impacts on tourism. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 18(3), 221–226.




How to Cite

Thermadham, T. S., & C. P. Shaheed Ramzan. (2024). An Analysis on the Trend and Pattern of Tourism in India with Special Reference to Medical Tourism. Atna Journal of Tourism Studies, 19(1), 91-111.