Congruity and Incongruity Between Projected (DMO) and Perceived (UGC) Destination Image – A Comparative Content Analysis


  • Unnikrishnan T Central University of Kerala
  • Sibi P. S. Department of Tourism Studies, Pondicherry University



DMO, User-Generated Content, Kerala Tourism, Destination Image, Projected and Perceived Images


User-generated Content (UGC) in the digital world has gained credibility as a kind of word-of-mouth in recent years with the advent of new Information and communication technologies (ICT). Travelers rely on UGC information than DMO content while the travel decision-making process. No previous research has been conducted to correlate both UGC and DMO destination images of Kerala. The study analyzes the dominant attributes of the destination image of Kerala presented through DMO and UGC Visual Content. Also, find out whether there is any commonality in destination attributes between pictures posted by tourists (UGC) and DMO or vice versa. Images of Kerala were gathered for this study from DMO’s website (, Instagram, and Facebook, two of the most popular social media platforms worldwide. By applying content analysis methodology to the collected DMO and UGC images of Kerala Tourism, the research objectives are attained. Data from the last five years were considered for the study to understand the latest trends and changing patterns. The results aid tourism stakeholders in planning effective social media marketing strategies to capture the imagination of tourists, hence creating a better destination image online.


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How to Cite

T, U., & P. S., S. (2023). Congruity and Incongruity Between Projected (DMO) and Perceived (UGC) Destination Image – A Comparative Content Analysis. Atna Journal of Tourism Studies, 18(2), 167-189.